As we know that the economic development of a country depends on various factors such as natural resources, capital and human resources. Human resources have fundamental importance because without them, the natural resources can not be exploited but overpopulation causes adverse effects on the economy.
The purpose of this assignment is to analyze the impacts of the impacts of overpopulation on the economic development of Pakistan.
Contents of Study:
In order to see the role of population in the economic development, we will consider the world population and growth rate in comparison to that of Pakistan. The qualitative aspects of population, major factors affecting population growth, Malthusian population trap, the problems created by overpopulation and the possible solutions to the problems. All this will be done with the help of graphs.
Overpopulation can be defined as the condition where "finite resources of a particular area will run out if the population expands beyond a given point". Economics is defined as the social science dealing with the allocation of scarce resources. The earth has a reserve of scarce resources and when the population exceeds a certain level, allocation of these resources becomes difficult and leads to various economic problems such as unemployment and poverty.
The population of the world has reached six billion. There has been a gradual increase in the world population over the centuries (see table 2.1 and fig. 2.2). During the 1950's the growth rate was low a mere 1.47%, it further decreased during the 1960's.The main reason for this decline was that if at that time an epidemic spread, it ravaged millions of people. Also the infant mortality rate was high but despite the less use of contraceptives, the population growth rate was low. In the decade of 1970, the population increased very quickly and problems related to overpopulation arose. This made the people realize the need for restricting their families, so after the 1970's the growth rate started declining. This is not of much help because there were already a large number of people present on the earth now; the damage had been already done. The population distribution has also affected this.
One very interesting fact is that most of the world population is concentrated in the lesser-developed countries, most of which are in Asia (see fig 2.3). These countries have limited resources, so the increasing population is a strain on the country. As the people have lesser exposure to the facilities of living, they remain unaware of problem of population and continue to have large families. In comparison to the world growth rate the, the growth rate of Asia only started to decline during the 1990's. It means that the more developed countries, which are mostly located in the west, mainly offered the reduction in growth rate. As the lower developed countries were unable to control population growth, they were unable to develop themselves. They are caught in a dilemma; a lot of labor force but most of the available human force were not productive.
Purpose of Assignment:
Our aim is to analyze the overpopulation problem in Pakistan. Although the population has qualitative as well as quantitative aspects, we will focus mainly on the quantitative aspects. Overpopulation poses threats to the society and the economy. Our focus is the economy but we will also discuss some social issues, relating to the economy.
Relationship between population and economic development:
Production level of a country can be boosted by the working capacity of the population. Population is playing a double role in the process of economic development of third world countries. It provides labor force for economic development and is also a burden on resources.
Population in Pakistan include: Growth rate, birth rate, death rate and migration. There are other factors such as education....
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