Demographic means the study of population and how it has changed over a certain amount of time, diversity means the change or the difference between one thing and another.
The four factors that affect population growth are birth rate, fertility rate, death rate, life expectancy and cultural diversity.
I will first tell you about the trends and patterns of birth rate.
In the UK in 2004 only 716,00 children where born, which was 34% fewer births than in 1901 and 21% fewer than 1971; Although birth rates over the course of the century have not been a straightforward decline. It's been a history of fluctuations. Since 2001, the birth rate steadily rises. In 2007 ONC announced that 2006 had the highest birthrate for 26 years. There are some reasons for the number of births in 2001 being lower than the rates in 1901, one being the number of infant mortality rate which is the number of babies dying at birth or in their first year of life, this could be the result of sanitation, lack of water supplies and nutrition and medicine. A second reason would be that as standards of living increased, so did the average cost to bring up a child which was calculated at about £140,000, this resulted in families limiting their family size. A third reason of birth rate was because of the dramatically changed views about women and their roles in the 20th century, this changed the attitude towards family life, having children, education such as leaving school, going...