*Allies first important victory: The Battle of Coral Sea- Northwest of Australia; May 7-8, 1942. -American forces first turned back the previously unstoppable Japanese fleet.
*Battle of Midway; Four day battle. Extremely victorious. American navy destroyed four Japanese aircraft carriers while losing only one; regaind control of the central Pacific.
*America took the offensive side in the Solomon Islands to the east of New Guinea.
*Guadalcanal- Battle of terrible ferocity and savagery.
-Continued for six months
-inflicting heavy loses on both sids
-In the end, the Japanese were forced to abandon the Island
1274. Adolf Hitler (1889-1945), Nazism
German facist dictator. Leader of the National Socialist Workers Party, or Nazis. Elected Chancellor of Germany in 1933, he quickly established himself as an absolute dictator.
1275. Munich Conference, appeasement, Neville Chamberlain
1938 - Hitler wanted to annex the Sudetenland, a portion of Czechoslovakia whose inhabitents were mostly German-speaking. On Sept. 29, Germany, Italy, France, and Great Britain signed the Munich Pact, which gave Germany the Sudetenland. British Prime Minister Chamberlain justified the pact with the belief that appeasing Germany would prevent war.
1276. Austria annexed
March 12, 1938 - After the Austrian leader resigned under growing Nazi pressure, German troops set up a government called the Ansehluss, which was a union of Germany and Austria.
1277. Nonagression pact between Germany and U.S.S.R.
August 23, 1939 - Germany and Russia agreed not to attack each other, which allowed Hitler to open up a second front in the West without worrying about defending against Russia. Granted Western Poland ot Germany, but allowed Russia to occupy Finland, Estonia, Latvia, and Eastern Poland. Hitler intended to break the pact.
1278. Invasion of Poland, Blitzkrieg
September, 1939 - Germany used series of "lightning campaigns" to conquer Poland. The invasion caused Great Britain and France to declare war on Germany.
1279. Axis Powers
A series of treaties in 1936 and 37 between Germany, Italy, and Japan created what was called the "Rome-Berlin-Tokyo Axis." The coutries were thereafter refered to as the Axis Powers.
1280. "Cash and carry" revision of neutrality
Stated the warring nations wishing to trade with the U.S. would have to pay cash and carry the goods away in their own ships. Benefitted the Allies, since German ships could not reach the U.S. due to the Allied blockades.
1281. Fall of France
Summer, 1941 - Germany invaded France and set up the Vichey government, which lasted until the Allies invaded in 1944.
1282. America First Committee
1940 - Formed by die-hard isolationists who feared the U.S. going to war.
1283. Isolationism, Charles Lindbergh
Lindbergh, known for making the first solo flight across the Atlantic, became politically controversial because he was an isolationist and pro-Germany.
1284. Committee to Defend America by Aiding the Allies
1940 - Formed by isolationists who believed that the U.S. could avoid going to war by giving aid in the form of supplies and money to the Allies, who would fight the war for us.
1285. Smith Act
Required fingerprinting and registering of all aliens in the U.S. and made it a crime to teach or advocate the violent overthrow of the U.S. government.
1286. Tojo (Hideki)
Prime Minister of Japan (1941-1944) and leading advocate of Japanese military conquest during World War II.
1287. Destroyer Deal
1940 - U.S. agreed to "lend" its older destroyers to Great Britain. (Destroyers were major warships that made up the bulk of most countries' navies.) Signaled the end of U.S. neutrality in the war.
1288. Election of 1940: candidates, issues
Democrat - Franklin D. Roosevelt, Republican - Wendel Wrillkie (lost by almost 5 million votes). The issue was the New Deal, about which there was a major debate.
1289. "Lend lease" March 1941 -...
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