1. The Middle ages, The span of the time between the fall of the west Roman Empire and beginning of the Renaissance period is called the middle age.
1.1. Music Features
• The Church was the dominated intellectual as well as cultural, therefore not only music but all other arts were linked mainly for serve God.
• There were sacred and secular music.
o In the first the most of composers were monks or priests, they got an great monophonic repertory which means unaccompanied melodies sung by single voice
o In the second kind of music the composers were giving plays constantly, they adjusted the poems that tell about the human emotions.
• Polyphony which means multiple independent voices sung or played music together was important in both sacred and secular music.
1. 2 Music for sacred spaces, the great buildings were symbol of divine power.
• Due to the imposing structures like Churches and Cathedrals which appeared in middle age and provide a huge space, the sacred music fulfilled a great function.
o When the necessity of project sacred texts with great clarity across these enormous spaces appeared, then the beauty of he sound would improve the way to understand the texts and to inspire the worshippers.
3. Music for entertainment, medieval castles were symbols of secular, wordly power
o Medieval courts used the arts as a means of projecting their cultural power.
4. Music for Dancing, In an era where the marriage were closely regulated, the music helped to arise the dance, it was a highly significant social activity 2. The Renaissance, In this era all arts rebirth and with its the spirit of the humanism.
2.1 Renaissance composers readjust both sacred and secular texts
o The idea of the readjust is to link the words and music most directly than ever before
o The typical Renaissance vocal composition features a full, rich sound, intricate in both its texture and rhythm
3. Music for Catholics, Music for Protestants
o Protestantism (a new branch of Christianity established after the revolutionary motion knowing as Reformation)
o The western church divided into two main branches Catholic and Protestant
▪ For Protestant liturgy the Composers responded writing new music in languages other than Latin.
▪ Catholic composers redoubled their efforts to write music that move the souls of the faithful
4. Music for growing markets.
o Composers and musicians benefited from the enormous economic growth throughout Europe.
o As kingdoms, duchies, and city-states expanded, the demand for music and other arts became greater and greater.
5. The Renaissance was an age of growing confidence, Art become more personal and was acquired the new sense of individuality
3. The Baroque Era, It was the span of time between seventeenth century to middle of the eighteenth century, is the period between The Renaissance and Classical era.
1. Features of this Era
o Music and art had extravagant and even bizarre qualities
o The freely of texture and harmonies tend to be more and for this reason the baroque music was unpredictable.
o Was used homophony which means one voice clearly most important than others. It helps to arise the Opera and also made possible the instrumental genre of the concerto.
o Appeared the constrast in the sounds, between high and low, soft and loud.
2. Projecting Cultural power through music
o During this Era, a nation´s splendor was measured in cultural terms as well as political and economic terms