Outline and Evaluate Research Into Institutional Aggression

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Outline and evaluate research into institutional aggression

deindividuation include being in a large crowd, anonymity due to wearing a uniform and altered consciousness due to drugs or alcohol. Deindividuation leads to reduced inner restraints and therefore an increase in behaviours that are usually inhibited and also reduces the fear of negative evaluation from others. This leads to an increase in aggressive behaviours. Recent changes to this theory focus on the importance of private self-awareness rather than public self-awareness. Prentice-Dunn and Rogers suggested that being in a crowd makes people less self-focused, so less able to regulate their behaviour according to their internalised attitudes and moral standards. Empirical support for this theory comes from Zimbardo’s study in which female students were asked to shock a confederate found that those who were deindividuated by wearing robes and large hoods gave more shocks than those who were identifiable by wearing name tags. However, a criticism of this study is that deindividuation doesn’t always lead to aggression, and can sometimes make people behave more peacefully, e.g. at a peace rally or when wearing a nurses uniform. It may be that deindividuation leads to conformity to group and situational norms. Postmes and Spears carried out a meta-analysis of deindivuation studies and found no evidence that deindividuation caused anti-normative or disinhibited behaviour. Knowledge of the effect of reduced self-awareness can be used to reduce aggression in football crowds. Using mirrors and video cameras forces people to think about themselves, and reduces aggression. homicide rate in America increases in the week after a major boxing match on TV, providing evidence of social learning in adults. An advantage of the SLT is that it can explain differences between individuals, e.g. cultural differences and also differences within individuals, which can be explained by selective reinforcement and...
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