Outline and Evaluate Piaget and Vygotsky

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Piaget, Vygotsky’s, Cognition and Education

|Discuss Piaget’s theory of cognitive development [24] | |The sensorimotor period from |This is the first stage of Piaget’s cognitive development theory, which happens between 0 and 2 years of age. The | |0-2 years of age |infants in this stage are able to explore and manipulate objects with the set of reflexes that they are born with. | | |However they are unable to understand that objects exist when they are unable to see them, this is known as object | | |permanence. Piaget suggests that children feel a sense of disequilibrium and have sense of agency so pursue knowledge | | |and undergo accommodation and assimilation as they gain more and more new knowledge. | |The pre-operational period |This is the second stage in Piaget’s cognition and development theory, which happens between 2 and 6 years of age. | |from 2-7 years of age |Children are able to use language to represent objects and can perform simple classification tasks, but the world is | | |limited to their own perspective, this is known as egocentrism. The children are currently using animism in their life;| | |this is where they believe that inanimate objects, such as toys, have human feelings and intentions. | |The concrete operational |This is the third stage in Piaget’s cognitive development theory, which happens between 7 and 11 years of age. The | |period from 7-11 years of age |children in this stage are now able to understand conservation. They understand class inclusions as well as knowing | | |that number, weight and volume stay constant. They decentre and become less egocentric. Mental operations can be | | |performed and logical problems can be solved but only if they can be linked or related to real objects. For example a | | |teacher may use cake in order to help a child understand addition or subtraction. | |The formal operational period |This is the fourth and final stage in Piaget’s cognition and development theory, which happens from the age of eleven | |from 11+ years of age |and continues to an unspecified age. Adolescents in this stage can now use abstract reasoning to solve hypothetical | | |problems. They are also able to generate predictions and test them systematically, rather than by use of trial and | | |error. They are able to visualise and consider objects and concepts without needing to see them visually. | |Piaget’s pendulum task |Piaget asked children to identify what factors affected the speed of a pendulum; they were given all the equipment | | |needed to make the simple pendulums. He observed that children under 11 years of age would test this by trial and | | |error. Children over the age of 11 systematically altered a variable while keeping all the other variables constant | | |such as the length of string. This study demonstrates the differences between children that have entered his final | | |stage of development: the formal operational stage, and those that have not. | |Siegler’s 1995 microgenetic |Siegler selected a group of children that failed the standard piagetian conservation task with counters. He then | |experiment of conservation |trained the children by repeating the experiment with four different groups; one was told if...
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