Outline 31.1

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Aggression, Appeasement, and War

Vocabulary
Sanction – penalties
Pacifism – opposition to all war
Appeasement – giving in to demands of an aggressor to keep the peace Anschuss – union of Austria

Dictators Challenge World Peace
Japan on the Move
i. One of the earliest tests had been posed by Japan.
ii. Japanese military leaders and ultranationalists thought that Japan should have an empire equal to those of the western powers. iii. In pursuit of this goal, Japan seized Manchuria in 1931. iv. Japan’s easy successes strengthen the militarists. In 1937, Japanese armies overran much of eastern China. v. Once again, western protests had no effect on the conqueror. Italy Invades Ethiopia

i. In Italy, Mussolini used his new, modern military to pursue his own imperialist ambitions. ii. He looked first to Ethiopia, in northeastern Africa. In 1935, Italy invaded Ethiopia. iii. The Ethiopian king Haile Selassie appealed to League of Nations for help. iv. The League voted sanction against Italy for having violated international law. v. But the League had no power to enforce the sanction, and by early 1936, Italy had conquered Ethiopia.

Hitler’s Challenge
i. By then, Hitler, too, had tested the will of the western democracies and found it weak. ii. First, he built up the German military in defiance of the Versailles Treaty. iii. Then, in 1936, he sent troops into the “demilitarized” Rhineland bordering France – another treaty violation iv. Western democracies denounced his moves but took no real action. v. Instead, they adopted a policy of appeasement

Appeasement and Neutrality
i. The western policy of appeasement developed for a number of reasons. ii. France was demoralized, suffering from political divisions at home iii. The British, however, had no desire to confront the German dictator. Some even thought that Hitler’s actions constituted a justifiable response to the terms of the Versailles treaty, which they believed had been too harsh against Germany...
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