Springett (quoted in Everard, 1991) concluded that ¡®development training, as its proponents claim, has an important part to play in the building of a positive and effective workforce¡¯. Actually, the ¡®academic research¡¯ literature of outdoor development emerged by Springett who had carried out his review.
Outdoor development is presented as a suitable method for developing some team and individual skills. However, given the lack of supporting evidence outdoor development ¡®should not be seen as a panacea to every people-oriented training need¡¯ (Ibbetson & Newell, 1996) but rather a ¡®tool in the trainer¡¯s toolbox¡¯ (Tuson, 1994). With this in mind, the current theories supporting the use of outdoor development will now be outlined.
As a training method, why the outdoor development training is so useful? The reasons are highlighted that distinguish is from other conventional training areas: real experience, different environment, ¡®safe¡¯ experimentation, trust, impact, fun and motivation (Tuson, 1994).
1.2The Training Background
Since late 1978 the China has begun moving the economy from a sluggish Soviet-style centrally planned economy to a more market-oriented system£¬ which has made the economy blooming and enterprises had a steady increase. The authorities have switched to a system of household responsibility in agriculture in place of the old collectivization, increased the authority of local officials and plant managers in industry, permitted a wide variety of small-scale enterprise in services and light manufacturing, and opened the economy to increased foreign trade and investment. (http://www.ide.go.jp/English/New/Press/pdf/2003_china)
One forth centuries passed from ¡®Opening Reform¡¯ of China in 1978 up to today. Chinese torchbearers planned ¡°GDP increase by four times in twenty years¡± at that time, but no one believed it can be achievement. Today, the GDP of China has developed from 500 billion RMBs of 1978 to 10,000 billions RMBs of 2002, which eight and half times than that in 1978, and keeping 9.3% of the annual increasing speed in this 25 years. The economic power of new China today is four times than that of old China two decades years ago. (http://www.12333.gov.cn/wsbs/zypxjd/xpzl/xpgc/t20040520_3143.shtml)
Whereas, China still faces big difficulties and risks: some situations which reflect from important economic index conflict to the healthy trend of its increasing economy. That means there are serious challenges hiding behind the superficially rapid economic development. Specially, in the last five years, unemployed circumstance turned worse when it started the plan to switch state-owned company to joint ventures or semi-private own limit company. Another remarkable change of China in this period is the economic transference from traditional agriculture and manufacturing industry to high technology and service-based industry. All these changes need the labour force to learn new knowledge and skills so to improve the individual competence in the competition.
Results influenced by above phenomenon root in two greatest reasons: the system environment problem and the labor diathesis character problem. Although the system has already been changed to fit for the current environment, the lower labor diathesis problem still to great extent block the achievement of new reform, which can be only resolved by education and training. (http://www.12333.gov.cn/wsbs/zypxjd/xpzl/xpgc/t20040520_3143.shtml)
After China¡¯ entry of WTO, Chinese bravely accepted some new concepts from western developed countries. Most people understand that living and development have become the two most important problems they need to face. For some enterprises, improving education level and learning skills are two key aspects needed to solve immediately. According to these reasons, training has become a necessary method to deal with these problems effectively...