Springett (quoted in Everard, 1991) concluded that ¡®development training, as its proponents claim, has an important part to play in the building of a positive and effective workforce¡¯. Actually, the ¡®academic research¡¯ literature of outdoor development emerged by Springett who had carried out his review.
Outdoor development is presented as a suitable method for developing some team and individual skills. However, given the lack of supporting evidence outdoor development ¡®should not be seen as a panacea to every people-oriented training need¡¯ (Ibbetson & Newell, 1996) but rather a ¡®tool in the trainer¡¯s toolbox¡¯ (Tuson, 1994). With this in mind, the current theories supporting the use of outdoor development will now be outlined.
As a training method, why the outdoor development training is so useful? The reasons are highlighted that distinguish is from other conventional training areas: real experience, different environment, ¡®safe¡¯ experimentation, trust, impact, fun and motivation (Tuson, 1994).
1.2 The Training Background
Since late 1978 the China has begun moving the economy from a sluggish Soviet-style centrally planned economy to a more market-oriented system£¬ which has made the economy blooming and enterprises had a steady increase. The authorities have switched to a system of household responsibility in agriculture in place of the old collectivization, increased the authority of local officials and plant managers in industry, permitted a wide variety of small-scale enterprise in services and light manufacturing, and opened the economy to increased foreign trade and investment. (http://www.ide.go.jp/English/New/Press/pdf/2003_china)
One forth centuries passed from ¡®Opening Reform¡¯ of China in 1978 up to today. Chinese torchbearers planned ¡°GDP increase by four times in twenty years¡± at that time, but no one believed it can be achievement. Today, the GDP of China has developed from 500... [continues]
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