Outcome 1 Know the main forms of mental ill health
1.Describe the main types of mental ill health according to the psychiatric (dsm/icd) classification system: Mood Disorders
Mood disorder is the term designating a group of diagnoses in the Diagnostic and statistic manual of mental disorders (DSM IV TR) classification system where a disturbance in the person's mood is hypothesized to be the main underlying feature. The classification is known as mood (affective) disorders in ICD 10. English psychiatrist Henry Maudsley proposed an overarching category of affective disorder. The term was then replaced by mood disorder, as the latter term refers to the underlying or longitudinal emotional state, whereas the former refers to the external expression observed by others. Two groups of mood disorders are broadly recognized; the division is based on whether amanic or hypomanic episode has ever been present. Thus, there are depressive disorders, of which the best-known and most researched is major depressive disorder (MDD) commonly called clinical depression or major depression, and bipolar disorder (BD), formerly known as manic depression and characterized by intermittent episodes of mania or hypomania, usually interlaced with depressive episodes. However, there are also forms of depression of MDD and BD that are less severe and are known as dysthymic disorder (in relation to MDD) and cyclothymic disorder (in relation to BD).
Personality disorder refers to a class of personality types and enduring behaviours associated with significant distress or disability, which appear to deviate from social expectations particularly in relating to other humans. Personality disorders are included as mental disorders on Axis II of the diagnostic manual of the American Psychiatric Association and in the mental and behavioural disorderes section of the ICD Manual of the World Health Organisation. Personality, defined psychologically, is the set of enduring behavioural and mental traits that distinguish human beings. Hence, personality disorders are defined by experiences and behaviours that differ from societal norms and expectations. Those diagnosed with a personality disorder may experience difficulties in cognition, emotiveness, interpersonal functioning or control of impulses. In general, personality disorders are diagnosed in 40-60 percent of psychiatric patients, making them the most frequent of all psychiatric diagnoses. These behavioural patterns in personality disorders are typically associated with substantial disturbances in some behavioural tendencies of an individual, usually involving several areas of the personality, and are nearly always associated with considerable personal and social disruption. Additionally, personality disorders are inflexible and pervasive across many situations, due in large part to the fact that such behaviour may be ego synotic (i.e. the patterns are consistent with the ego integrity of the individual) and are, therefore, perceived to be appropriate by that individual. This behaviour can result in maldaptive coping skills which may lead to personal problems that induce extreme anxiety, distress or depression. The onset of these patterns of behaviour can typically be traced back to early adolescence and the beginning of adulthood and, in some instances, childhood. Because the theory and diagnosis of personality disorders stem from prevailing cultural expectations, their validity is contested by some experts on the basis of invariable subjectivity. They argue that the theory and diagnosis of personality disorders are based strictly on social, or even sociopolitical and economic considerations.
Anxiety disorder is a blanket term covering several different forms of a type of common psychiatric disorder characterized by excessive rumination, worrying, uneasiness, apprehension and fear about future...