Osl Manual

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THE MEASUREMENT
OF SCIENTIFIC
AND TECHNOLOGICAL ACTIVITIES

PROPOSED GUIDELINES
FOR COLLECTING
AND INTERPRETING
INNOVATION DATA

OSLO MANUAL
Final draft of the third edition,
JULY 5, 2005

1

TABLE OF CONTENTS
Chapter 1 OBJECTIVES AND SCOPE OF THE MANUAL .......................................................................5 1.
2.

INTRODUCTION ............................................................................................................................5 FACTORS INFLUENCING THE SCOPE OF THE MANUAL .....................................................8 2.1

What is measurable?....................................................................................................................9 2.2
What is of value to measure?.......................................................................................................9 3.
SCOPE OF THE MANUAL.............................................................................................................9 3.1
Sector coverage .........................................................................................................................10 3.2
Innovation at the level of the firm .............................................................................................10 3.3
Types of innovations .................................................................................................................10 3.4
Diffusion and the degree of novelty ..........................................................................................11 4.
PROVIDING DATA ON THE KEY ISSUES................................................................................12 4.1
Innovation activities and expenditures ......................................................................................12 4.2
Factors influencing innovation ..................................................................................................12 4.3
The innovating firm and the impact of innovation ....................................................................13 4.4
Linkages in the innovation process ...........................................................................................13 5.
SOME SURVEY ISSUES ..............................................................................................................13 5.1
Approach to data collection.......................................................................................................13 6.
THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN THE OSLO MANUAL AND OTHER INTERNATIONAL STANDARDS AND RELATED CONCEPTS .........................................................................................14 6.1
Manuals for the measurement of science and technology activities..........................................14 6.2
Other economic norms and classifications ................................................................................16 6.3
Other related concepts and surveys ...........................................................................................16 7.
FINAL REMARK...........................................................................................................................18 Chapter 2 INNOVATION THEORY AND MEASUREMENT NEEDS....................................................19 1.

2.
3.
4.
4.1
4.2
4.3
4.4
4.5
5.
5.1
5.2
5.3
5.4
5.5
5.6
5.7

INTRODUCTION ..........................................................................................................................19 ECONOMICS OF INNOVATION.................................................................................................19 A MEASUREMENT FRAMEWORK ...........................................................................................23 SECTORAL AND REGIONAL ASPECTS OF INNOVATION...................................................27 Innovation in services................................................................................................................27...
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