29 November 2010
During the late 1970’s, the need for computers of all types to be able to communicate with each became more prevalent. In order to rectify this growing situation, the Internation Organization for Standardization (ISO) began to formulate the Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) model. The OSI model was created to standardize the rules of networking in order for all systems to be able to communicate. In order for communication to occur on a networking using different device drivers and protocol stacks, the rules for communication must be explicitly defined. The OSI model deals with the following issues; • How a device on a network sends its data, and how it knows where to send it. • How a device on a network receives its data, and how it knows where to look for it. • How devices using different languages communicate with each other. • How devices on a network are physically connected to each other. • How protocols work with devices on a network to arrange data. By 1983, the OSI model became the standard reference model (Tomsho, Tittel & Johnson, 2004).
The OSI model utilizes layers and is broken down into seven different layers. Each layer has its own unique properties, tasks and activities. The seven layers (in order from “lowest” in the hierarchy to “highest”) are physical, data link, network, transport, session, presentation and application. The lowest layer on the OSI model is the physical layer. This layer deals with the physical, electrical, and cable issues involved with making a network connection. It associates with any part of the network structure that doesn't process information in any way. The physical layer is responsible for sending the bits across the network media. It does not define what a bit is or how it is used merely how it's sent. The physical layer is responsible for transmitting and receiving the data. It defines pin assignments for...