Osh 1990

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  • Topic: Kyrgyzstan, Soviet Union, Turkic peoples
  • Pages : 5 (1701 words )
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  • Published : March 13, 2013
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Reflection paper on Osh event of 1990 by V. Tishkov
Chynygul Sagyndykova BA-111
Mukaram Toktogulova
The problem of interethnic communication owing to polyethnicity of a number of regions and all world community is actual today and there will be that until the mankind exists in national appearances. It can't be finally solved in the foreseeable future as time, social and socio-political realities introduce all new and new amendments in statement of this problem, in its contents and in decision attempts by its methods adequate to a certain level of development of scientific knowledge. Therefore various aspects of a problem of interethnic communication were and remain an object of research of ethnologists, sociologists, psychologists, historians, etc. Despite the general impression that the Soviet Union was a highly organized and tightly controlled society, it experienced several inter ethnic conflicts, of which the events known as “Osh 1990” was only one.  There were, for example, four large scale violent conflicts which erupted in the Caucuses at about the same time. This conflict was characterized by the cruel forms which it took: murder, rape, arson, and massacre. Osh ethnic conflict of summer 1990 was one of the largescaled and   violent  on  the  territory  of  the  former USSR,  involving representatives of two Central Asian ethnic  groups    Uzbeks  and Kyrghyz,  belonging  socalled  titular nationalities of the former Soviet Union. The conflict took its place mainly in Osh and also in Uzgen, Jalal-Abad and Kara-Suu region. This conflict was categorized as a riot-type one. Osh oblast is characterized  by  a  multiethnic population:  of 1,3 million ethnic  Kyrghyz  comprise  60%,  Uzbeks number  26%  and  Russians  estimate 6%  with many smaller minority groups(Tadjiks,  Tatars,  Ukranians,  Volga Germans, Uigurs, Turks, Azeris  and  others). Proceeding from the statistical data we can notice that not only Kyrgyz “played” the main and major roles in social and political lives. For example, Russians occupied leading positions in industry, Uzbeks were mainly engaged in agriculture, while Kyrgyz themselves were dominating in cattle breeding. That is, there was not any kind of ethnical pressure. For the first sight it seems that everything was equally divided by each representative of each ethnical group. Nevertheless, the conflict did take its place.  Under conditions  of  low  living standards,  socioeconomic crisis  and  political  destabilization  interethnic  tension   has emerged  due to a number of causes,  among which the most important were increasing intergroup competition over resources (land  lots), struggle   to   gain   control   over   power   structures,  social differentiation  along  the  line  "the  city      the   village", unemployment  and  lack  of  housing. Some  experts  believe  the incompetence of the oblast administration as well as the activities of nongovernmental organizations and nationalist groups both among the Kyrghyz and the Uzbeks were  a  significant  factor  in  fermenting ethnic unrest and violence. Open conflict  in  the  form  of  mass riots and intercommunal clashes broke out on June 4,  1990 in the city of  Osh  and  spread over Uzgen and other regions the next day. In Uzgen, the main conflict took place on 5-7 June 1990, with sporadic outbursts of criminality on other days as well. Both sides committed arson, killed horses, and plundered shops and offices. They were armed with smaller guns, pistols, sticks, and rods. Murders in Uzgen, Osh, and other regions were committed by strangulation with wire or rope; torture and beating; assault and battery using axes, stones, and other hard objects; and guns. There were cases when the victim was burnt, to make identification impossible. Rape was characteristic of both sides, as were various forms of humiliation and torture, such as parading women naked in the street. A number of different economic, social, and political factors can...
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