Reflection paper on Osh event of 1990 by V. Tishkov
Chynygul Sagyndykova BA-111
The problem of interethnic communication owing to polyethnicity of a number of regions and all world community is actual today and there will be that until the mankind exists in national appearances. It can't be finally solved in the foreseeable future as time, social and socio-political realities introduce all new and new amendments in statement of this problem, in its contents and in decision attempts by its methods adequate to a certain level of development of scientific knowledge. Therefore various aspects of a problem of interethnic communication were and remain an object of research of ethnologists, sociologists, psychologists, historians, etc. Despite the general impression that the Soviet Union was a highly organized and tightly controlled society, it experienced several inter ethnic conflicts, of which the events known as “Osh 1990” was only one. There were, for example, four large scale violent conflicts which erupted in the Caucuses at about the same time. This conflict was characterized by the cruel forms which it took: murder, rape, arson, and massacre. Osh ethnic conflict of summer 1990 was one of the largescaled and violent on the territory of the former USSR, involving representatives of two Central Asian ethnic groups Uzbeks and Kyrghyz, belonging socalled titular nationalities of the former Soviet Union. The conflict took its place mainly in Osh and also in Uzgen, Jalal-Abad and Kara-Suu region. This conflict was categorized as a riot-type one. Osh oblast is characterized by a multiethnic population: of 1,3 million ethnic Kyrghyz comprise 60%, Uzbeks number 26% and Russians estimate 6% with many smaller minority groups(Tadjiks, Tatars, Ukranians, Volga Germans, Uigurs, Turks, Azeris and others). Proceeding from the statistical data we can notice that not only Kyrgyz “played” the main and major roles in social and political lives. For example, Russians occupied leading positions in industry, Uzbeks were mainly engaged in agriculture, while Kyrgyz themselves were dominating in cattle breeding. That is, there was not any kind of ethnical pressure. For the first sight it seems that everything was equally divided by each representative of each ethnical group. Nevertheless, the conflict did take its place. Under conditions of low living standards, socioeconomic crisis and political destabilization interethnic tension has emerged due to a number of causes, among which the most important were increasing intergroup competition over resources (land lots), struggle to gain control over power structures, social differentiation along the line "the city the village", unemployment and lack of housing. Some experts believe the incompetence of the oblast administration as well as the activities of nongovernmental organizations and nationalist groups both among the Kyrghyz and the Uzbeks were a significant factor in fermenting ethnic unrest and violence. Open conflict in the form of mass riots and intercommunal clashes broke out on June 4, 1990 in the city of Osh and spread over Uzgen and other regions the next day. In Uzgen, the main conflict took place on 5-7 June 1990, with sporadic outbursts of criminality on other days as well. Both sides committed arson, killed horses, and plundered shops and offices. They were armed with smaller guns, pistols, sticks, and rods. Murders in Uzgen, Osh, and other regions were committed by strangulation with wire or rope; torture and beating; assault and battery using axes, stones, and other hard objects; and guns. There were cases when the victim was burnt, to make identification impossible. Rape was characteristic of both sides, as were various forms of humiliation and torture, such as parading women naked in the street. A number of different economic, social, and political factors can...
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