Osgood and Schramm’s Circular Model of Communication (1954) was an attempt to rectify the earlier linear models of communication. It can happen within our self (Intra personal communication) or two people (Inter personal communication) each person acts as both sender and receiver and hence use interpretation. It is simultaneously take place e.g. encoding, interpreting and decoding.
Wilbur Schramm (1954) stated “It is misleading to think of the communications process as starting somewhere and ending somewhere. It is really endless. We are little switchboard centers [sic] handling and re-routing the great endless current of information”. Therefore, the Circular model is devoted to two actors who reciprocate in identical functions throughout: encoding, decoding, and interpreting. Additionally the model offers some explanation in semantic noise and interpersonal communication and how these might affect the communication process as a whole. The model presented by Osgood and Schramm shows not only the transmission and hearing of a message, but offers explanations in how it can be perceived and understood. The process of understanding what has been said can vary widely from person to person as there will always be a degree of semantic noise to be taken into account, such as cultural differences, background, socioeconomics, education and values. Advantage of Osgood- Schramm model of communication
1. Dynamic model- Shows how a situation can change.
2. It shows why redundancy is an essential part.
3. There is no separate sender and receiver, sender and receiver is the same person 4. Assume communication to be circular in nature
Disadvantage of Osgood- Schramm model of communication
This model does not talk about semantic noise and it assume the moment of encoding and decoding.