While many Orthodox Jews accept the label "Orthodox", others reject and criticize it because it was never traditionally applied to Jews in ancient times or the Middle Ages. Many Orthodox Jews prefer to call their faith Torah Judaism. Unlike the modern denominations of Judaism, Orthodoxy is not a single movement or school of thought. There is no single group which all rabbis are expected to belong to. In the United States at the present time, there are a number of Orthodox congregational organizations, but none of them can claim to represent even a majority of all Orthodox congregations.
Orthodox Jews believe that God gave Moses the whole Torah (Written and Oral) at Mount Sinai. Written Torah refers to the first five books of the Bible. Oral Torah interprets and explains the Written Torah. Orthodox Jews believe that the Torah contains 613 "mitzvot", or commandments, that are binding upon Jews. Orthodox Judaism is composed of different groups with intersecting beliefs, practices and theologies, and in their broad patterns, the Orthodox movements are very similar. Modern Orthodox Jews strictly observe "halakhah"... [continues]
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