AP World History, Period 3
13 Friday 2012
Oriental Orthodoxy is the official religion of the Eastern Christian Churches that identify with only three ecumenical councils. These three councils are as follows: the First Council of Nicaea, the First Council of Constantinople, and the First Council of Ephesus. Although “Oriental” means Eastern, Oriental Orthodox Churches are separate from the Eastern Orthodox Church. In contrast to the Eastern Orthodox Church, the Oriental Orthodox Churches reject the Council of Chalcedon. This is only one of the various characteristics that distinguish the two religions. In accordance to their rejection of the Council of Chalcedon, the Oriental Orthodox Churches are also known as the Old Oriental Churches and the Non-Chalcedonian Churches. The Oriental Orthodox faith consists of the following groups: Armenian Apostolic churches, Coptic Orthodox, Eritrean Orthodox, Ethiopian Orthodox, Syriac Orthodox, and the Malankara Orthodox Syrian Church. All six of these churches share a common faith; however, they are highly independent. The Oriental Orthodox Church split with the rest of the Eastern Christian Church after groups within the Church developed various differences in their ideologies of Christological terminology. To begin with, the First Council of Nicaea in 325 stated that Jesus Christ is God. Later, in 431 the First Council of Ephesus said that even though Jesus was both human and divine, he is one being. About twenty years after the First Council of Ephesus was established, the Council of Chalcedon stated that Jesus is only one person in two natures, one divine and one human. Although the Council of Chalcedon was similar to the First Council of Ephesus, groups who were in opposition to Chalcedon stated that the Council of Chalcedon paralleled...