A Case study
Ornamental Fish Trading in India
Ornamental Fish Trading in India
Keeping colourful and fancy fishes known as ornamental fishes, aquarium fishes, or live jewels is one of the oldest and most popular hobbies in the world. The growing interest in aquarium fishes has resulted in steady increase in aquarium fish trade globally. The ornamental fish trade with a turnover of US $ 6 Billion and an annual growth rate of 8 percent offers lot of scope for development. The ornamental fish sector is a widespread and global component of international trade, fisheries, aquaculture and development. However, the scope of this sector and the impact on human and aquatic communities are often inaccurately known and unappreciated(ref.1) Ornamental fish keeping is one of the most popular hobbies in the world today. The top exporting country is Singapore followed by Hong Kong, Malaysia, Thailand, Philippines, Sri Lanka, Taiwan, Indonesia and India. The largest importer of Ornamental fish is the USA followed by Europe and Japan. The emerging markets are China and South Africa. Over US $ 500 million worth of ornamental fish are imported into the USA each year. Although most fish kept in aquariums are from freshwater, the acquisition of marine ornamental fish has greatly increased, popularized by children's movies starring charismatic colourful fishes and other creatures. Recent advances in fish husbandry and aquarium equipment technology have further facilitated the hobby of the people.
Ornamental Fish Trade History
Some early cultures were known to keep fish, other than for the consumption of food. Some examples of ancient fish keepers are the Chinese, the Romans and early Asians. It has been noted that the ancient Babylonians kept ponds of ornamental fish and this was circa 500 BC. The most important contributor to the art of fish keeping was the Chinese. Goldfish were the first ornamental fish to be kept. These fish date back to 960 AD during the Sung Dynasty in China. Ponds stocked with ornamental fish gained popularity among the rich from 968-975 and eating the fish was strictly prohibited. In 1136 Emperor Hiau-Tsung started to breed and keep these fish in a more controlled environment. Several new breeds of ornamental fish evolved which helped make him popular and known throughout China. While excited about the prospects of keeping fish indoors, fish enthusiasts did not understand how the water needed to be "cycled" in order for fish to stay alive for long in doors. In 1805, Robert Warrington is credited with studying the tank's requirement to be cycled to keep fish alive for longer. With the opening of the Public Aquaria at the London Zoological Gardens at Regents Park in 1853, fish keeping as a hobby reached a new level of interest. In 1856, German Emil Robmaber wrote an essay, Sea in a Glass," introducing fish keeping as a hobby to the public. This hobby required specialized equipment and attention at this point, reserving it for the wealthy. Fish tanks for tropical fish required heating via flames underneath (gas burning lamps underneath slate bottoms). When electricity was introduced into the home, fish enthusiasts began experimenting with electrical immersion heaters in glass tubes. Up until the 1950's, all fish were fed live foods. Dr Baensch revolutionized the hobby by inventing flake foods. From there on, the hobby flourished. Fueled by faster and more advanced transportation, more and more breeders and hobbyists helped make the aquarium hobby more popular. The inventions since the 1950s, such as water chemistry, filtration, aeration, and lighting have basically made it possible for anyone to enjoy fish.
There was not a wide selection of aquariums in the 50's and 60's. Most of them had thick metal frames and the largest size was...