Historical Development of Volleyball
On February 9, 1895, in Holyoke, Massachusetts (USA), William G. Morgan, a YMCA physical education director, created a new game calledMintonette as a pastime to be played (preferably) indoors and by any number of players. The game took some of its characteristics from tennisand handball. Another indoor sport, basketball, was catching on in the area, having been invented just ten miles (sixteen kilometers) away in the city of Springfield, Massachusetts, only four years before. Mintonette was designed to be an indoor sport, less rough than basketball, for older members of the YMCA, while still requiring a bit of athletic effort. The first rules, written down by William G Morgan, called for a net 6 ft 6 in (1.98 m) high, a 25×50 ft (7.6×15.2 m) court, and any number of players. A match was composed of nine innings with three serves for each team in each inning, and no limit to the number of ball contacts for each team before sending the ball to the opponents’ court. In case of a serving error, a second try was allowed. Hitting the ball into the net was considered a foul (with loss of the point or a side-out)—except in the case of the first-try serve.
The world-wide governing body for volleyball is the International Volleyball Federation, or the "Federation Internationale de Volley-ball" (FIVB). The Federation is located in Paris, France. Originated in 1947, fourteen national federations joined together to organize international competition and to standardize the rules of volleyball around the world. The FIVB rules are used, with some modifications, in all volleyball competition except in high school in the United States. The United States Volleyball Association(USVBA) has been designated by the United States Olympic Committee (USOC) as the National Governing Body (NGB) for volleyball and its rules in the United States. It was originated in 1928 by George Fisher, who is often called "The Father of Volleyball". He edited the first volleyball rules guide in America published by the YMCA Rules Committee. The USVBA has six purposes: 1. The coordination of rules on a national basis;
2. The organization and governance of the national open tournaments; 3. The publication and distribution of the official rules; 4. The training and qualifying of officials;
5. The distribution of information on volleyball activities; and, 6. The selection of United States representative teams for international
Rules of the game
When the ball contacts the floor within the court boundaries or an error is made, the team that did not make the error is awarded a point, whether they served the ball or not. If the ball hits the line, the ball is counted as in. The team that won the point serves for the next point. If the team that won the point served in the previous point, the same player serves again. If the team that won the point did not serve the previous point, the players of the team rotate their position on the court in a clockwise manner. The game continues, with the first team to score 25 points by a two-point margin is awarded the set. Matches are best-of-five sets and the fifth set, if necessary, is usually played to 15 points. (Scoring differs between leagues, tournaments, and levels; high schools sometimes play best-of-three to 25; in the NCAA games are played best-of-five to 25 as of the 2008 season.) Before 1999, points could be scored only when a team had the serve (side-out scoring) and all sets went up to only 15 points. The FIVB changed the rules in 1999 (with the changes being compulsory in 2000) to use the current scoring system (formerly known as rally point system), primarily to make the length of the match more predictable and to make the game more spectator- and television-friendly.
A volleyball court is 18 m (59 ft) long and 9 m (29.5 ft) wide, divided into 9 m × 9 m halves by a one-meter (40-inch) wide net. The top of the net is...
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