Organizations in general adopt a 'strategic' approach towards training and development

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IntroductionIn today's business world, there is a much higher level of competition between companies requiring each to seek new and more efficient ways to increase organizational performance and gain more profits. There are a number of ways in which organizations can succeed (Grugulis and Stoyanova, 2006). Many organizations are likely to adopt a strategic approach towards training and development and see them as a central to Human Resource Management. According to Rainbird 2000 mentioned in her book, Human Resource Management can be defined as a set of managerial initiatives which have the specific aim securing the organisation's competitiveness advantage by utilizing the labour resource more effectively. These initiatives are coordinated organizational response to external market pressures. Where training and development are directly linked to competitiveness, then, these initiatives are more likely to be promoted at corporate level and become strategic rather than operational issues. The training and development are function contextualized within that section of the Human Resource Management literature which positions training and development as the central element of company strategy (Guest 1987). The structure of the training and development function, determined by its status and remit, may be said to reflect a company's commitment to its employees' long-term development and within this paradigm, training and development are claimed to be a key determinant of competitive success (Bennet, Ketchen and Schultz, 1998). Training and development is highly significant to human resource management and to the success of HR policies. Therefore the aim of this assignment is to discuss and investigate the evidence and arguments which suggest that training and development are considered by organizations as being strategically important to overall organization competitive strategy. The assignment is structured as follows. Firstly, a brief section of concepts on training and development will be given. Secondly, different HRM strategies adopting by organization towards training and development will be mentioned. Thirdly, evidences and arguments which show that training and development are important and link to organization will be analyzed. And finally, the conclusion will be made in order to support the ideas of how important training and development are involving in organization.

The concept of Training and Development'Training' is directed toward maintaining and improving current job performance, while 'Development' seeks to develop competencies for future roles. Training and Development are seen as formalized learning activities (Keep and Mayhew 1996). The ability of organizations is to develop and the skills and knowledge to do present and future jobs, which roughly translated is what training and development is about (Keep and Rainbird, 2000). In his book 'Training in Organisation' (1996), Goldstein defined training and development as the systematic acquisition of skills, rules, concepts or attitudes that result in improved performance in any environment.

Different HRM strategies adopting by organization towards training and developmentLO (Learning Organization) is seen to be an important issue for organizational strategy. The LO deals with the presence of training and strategy. As nowadays, learning has become a key prerequisite for those organizations which want to confront with the challenges and changes taking place in the business environment. It is generally believed that if organizations are to gain and sustain competitive advantage, they can no longer compete solely on a price basis (Keep and Rainbird, 2000). In the other words, if organizations truly want to secure a successful future performance, they have to express normative commitment to organizational learning and be good at it; they have to become 'learning organizations' (Tsang, 1997, p75, cited by Chacon, 2004, p4). Some theories adopt a 'managerial...
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