Organizational Theory to Apple Inc

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There are different ways as to how an object can be perceived by one and the same goes to organizations. Staying open to ideas through multiple perspectives helps to obtain a wider range of choices from additional cognitive interests and lines of interpretation (Alvesson 1996). With the growing organizations, theorists have been using different perspectives to analyze how organizations portray in terms of power and control. This essay helps to give a better understanding towards organizations, through modernist and critical theorist perspectives and focuses on the area of power and control. According to Hatch and Cunliffe (2006), modernist perspective of complete knowledge is to understand the functions of organizations and how different environments influence their functions. With the required knowledge, organizations are able to maximize their operations in the utmost efficient and effective manner. The epistemology of modernism is positivism which concerns the valuation of criteria and how knowledge is generated through valid measurements and discoveries. Good knowledge can be generated by testing the hypotheses and propositions against the natural world (Hatch & Cunliffe 2006). Furthermore, positivism promotes understanding, control and manipulation for beneficial social ends (Esade & Mckelvey 2010). General System focuses on fitting organizations into the environment through subsystems communication and maximization of its profits. Additionally, all these linked modernism and Taylor's scientific management approach closely. Under modernists perspective, organizations clearly carry out hierarchy system whereby employees are controlled by managers through use of power. Power is defined as the capability to make a person do something which one will not do, and control is the ability to set rules and values. Modernists focus on the distribution of power within the organizations and it is essential to have power and control to obtain organizational goals or objectives effectively and efficiently. In regards to hierarchy distribution of power, modernists recognized the need for strategic contingencies, which relates the power of a subunit to its ability in dealing with uncertain situations. Even though it is not the normal hierarchical distribution of power, it follows the organizations formal structures, where power is delegated to subunits. This shows that when times are uncertain, organizations can have the flexibility. In fact, uncertainty can be removed though bureaucracy theories of control approach. Modernists also use cybernetic control, where organizations set their goals for employees, evaluation of performances and recognize it in ways of incentives or feedbacks (Hatch & Cunliffe 2006). They believe setting of targets and monitoring of performances are necessary for employees to do well. If employees were unable to reach the expectations of the organization, they will be taken out from the system. Positive performances reap rewards whilst negative performances are used for feedback and punishment mechanisms (Hatch & Cunliffe 2006). In earlier context, managers have the power due to hierarchy system and employees have no control over their job design but work according to the instructions given by managers. However, the same thing goes to the managers and their owners; through agency theory, managers are being controlled by their owners. It addresses the gap between managers and owners towards organizational goals and ensures that mangers act in owners' best interests. This is done through a contract of agreement which includes rewarding managers with goal-related performance. As managers can manipulate the information pertaining to the organization's performance, the owners develop control methods to determine if the managers had fulfilled their duties in working for the best interest of the organization. For example, managers in production line may select suppliers with easy point of contact and...
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