Andrea F. Bass
Aslam, H. D., Javaid, T., Tanveer, A., Khan, M., & Shabbir, F. (2011). A Journey from Individual to Organizational Learning (Exploring the Linking Bridge: Team Learning). International Journal of Academic Research, 3(3), 738-745. The article addresses the need to adopt knowledge retention initiatives and continuous learning commitments amidst the challenges in today’s business environment. This begins with the topic of individual learning and further details the operational and procedural levels of learning, as well as how learning is applied in the organizational context. The authors focus on how to effectively apply the techniques of individual learning to a team learning process, the transfer of these skills and knowledge to the organization level, and the subsequent sustainment of this valuable knowledge base. To better facilitate organizational learning, individuals have to understand how they learn, how their organizational teams learn, and how this knowledge translates into the collective organizational know-how. The authors also explore the four steps in the organizational learning process that will engage and facilitate an organization’s members to learn effectively: knowledge acquisition, knowledge sharing, information interpretation, and memorization. Exposure to new knowledge, such as changing technological knowledge, or shifts in industry standards can happen quickly; therefore, it is vital that the knowledge from the individual worker be effectively captured in a team environment, which can then be translated into organizational memory. Baker, K. A. (2002). Chapter 11: Organizational Culture [PDF file]. Retrieved from
http://www.au.af.mil/au/awc/awcgate/doe/benchmark/ch11.pdf Baker provides her insight on the topic of strong versus weak organizational cultures and how these cultures can or cannot support organizational effectiveness. She emphasizes the value of a company’s intellectual aspects, which is its human capital, and the need for organizations to successfully implement strong cultures when it will offer them a competitive advantage. She does postulate that not all organizations would do well with a strong culture and suggests that some strong cultures will cause more dysfunction than opportunity. Individuals will put unrestricted demands on themselves, which could increase barriers to an environment of adaptation and change. Baker goes on to analyze the four distinct hypotheses of organizational culture: the consistency hypothesis, the mission hypothesis, the involvement/participation hypothesis, and the adaptability hypothesis. She identifies and effectively discusses the need for a synergistic approach to managing cultural orientations, due to the increased importance of understanding and implementing effective cultures in today’s global market. Damanpour, F. (1992). Organizational Size and Innovation. Organization Studies, 13(3), 375-402.
Damanpour performs a meta-analytical review of how an organization’s size affects its ability to successfully adopt innovations, in reaction to a rapidly changing external environment. Damanpour points out that there is very little consensus in the academic circle, in regards to the relationship of organizational size and its innovation capacity, due to a multitude of conceptual and methodological factors. The author proceeds to analyze the size-innovation relationship for complex and diverse organizations and smaller entrepreneurial organizations as well. Damanpour speculates that larger organizations do not always gain greater innovativeness because of their large size. Many times, the larger organizations are not as flexible and adaptable, as their smaller counterparts, despite the wealth of resources they have at their fingertips. Meehan, P., Rigby, D., & Rogers, P. (2008). Creating and Sustaining a Winning Culture [PDF