PART 1: LECTURE OUTLINES
CHAPTER 1 ORGANIZATIONS AND ORGANIZATIONAL EFFECTIVENESS
1. To define an organization and explain how it creates value in three stages: input, conversion, and output. (1.1) 2. To discuss why organizations exist and how they achieve goals collectively. (1.1) 3. To describe organizational theory, how organizations function, and relate to organizational structure, culture, and design. (1.2) 4. To show how organizational design helps a company gain a competitive advantage, deal with contingencies, manage diversity, increase efficiency, increase innovation, and effectively manage change. (1.2) 5. To illustrate the consequences of poor organizational design and loss of control over structure and culture. (1.2) 6. To discuss the three approaches of evaluating organizational effectiveness: external resource, internal
systems, and technical approach. (1.3)
7. To distinguish between official goals and operating goals. (1.3)
This chapter discusses organizations, organizational theory, and the importance of organizational design. An organization is a tool for individuals or groups to accomplish goals. An organization creates value at three stages: input, conversion, and output. Organizations exist because people working together to produce goods and services create more value than those working alone. Organizations may exist to increase specialization and the division of labor, to use large-scale technology, to manage the external environment, to economize on transaction costs, and to exert power and control over employees. The components of organizational theory are structure, culture, and design and change. Organizational design helps a company gain a competitive advantage, deal with contingencies, manage diversity, increase efficiency, and increase innovation. Poor organizational design results in company decline, including layoffs and difficulty in attracting resources. Organizational effectiveness should be measured according to a manager’s methods of control, innovation, and efficiency. The external resource, internal systems, or technical approach measure effectiveness and official and operative goals. Difficulties arise in measuring effectiveness even if stakeholders have shared goals. An organization must select the best way to achieve goals. Organizations are affected by the environment, technology, and processes. The technological environment entails innovations in production processes and new products.
CHAPTER OUTLINE 1.1 What Is an Organization?
An organization is intangible; it cannot be touched or felt. Thinking of an organization evokes its product or service. The name Anheuser-Busch evokes the word beer, not why the company provides beer or how it controls employees. An organization groups people and resources to provide goods and services to
PHAM HOANG HIEN
CHAPTER 1: ORGANIZATIONS AND ORGANIZATIONAL EFFECTIVENESS
satisfy a need. Entrepreneurs begin with the idea of satisfying a need then collect resources to meet that need.
Focus on New Information Technology: Amazon.com, Part 1
Amazon.com shows how Jeff Bezos saw a need and created an organization to meet it. Q. What prodded Jeff Bezos to start Amazon.com? A. Recognizing the opportunity to build an online bookstore, Bezos started Amazon.com to meet the needs of computer owners. An online bookstore could offer a larger and more diverse selection, an online catalogue, an easy search capability, and book reviews. Bezos organized resources to meet the need for a new bookstore.
How Does an Organization Create Value? The value creation process includes input,...