Organizational Theory

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Introduction
Modernists perceive organisations as tangibly factual bodies operating in the reality. When the organisation has been well designed and managed, the systems of actions and decisions made will be driven by the norms of rationality, efficiency and effectiveness to realize the organisation goals such as mission and vision. (Hatch, 1997) Critical Theorists view organisation as places where inequalities in power relations will dominate, resulting in the exploitation and estrangement of proletariat. Elements of authority and power of the dominant ideology will initiate decisions, laying constraints and oppression on the exploited parties. (Comstock, 1982) Apple Inc. is one of the most successful multinational organisations in creating consumer electronics, computer software and commercial servers, which started out as the minority player in the industry. With the Macintosh, Apple slowly built upon its successes from the iMac to the iPod and to the iPhone, which eventually turns the industry to its ear. (O’Grady, 2009) While Apple concentrates their headquarters’ activities on their core functions such as designing and developing of their products, as well as defining strategic direction and processes, outsourcing to regions will enable Apple to operate with greater cost-efficiently. (Schneiders, 2010) By engaging in global outsourcing, Apple was able to get cheaper overseas labour that were employed by third-party firms to lighten the labour load of their direct employees. Mastering global manufacturing, Apple has achieved a leap in innovation nearly unrivaled in modern history. (Duhigg & Barboza 2012) However at the same time, Apple’s outsourced factories are involved in scathing problems such as worker mistreatments, underage workers engagement, harsh working conditions and wage abuse. Effective organisations consists of various elements such as environment, goals, technology and people aligned, as well as managing the organisation in relation to the circumstances of which the organisation find itself. (Hatch & Cunliffe, 2006) In this essay, Modernist perspectives and Critical theorist perspectives will be used to explore the power, organization culture and structure of Apple in influencing their organisation environment as well as global networks.

Understanding Modernists and Critical Theorists’ Perspectives Modernism and Critical Theory are two different perspectives brought about in organisational theory, which differs in ontology as well as epistemology. Objectivism is the modernist’s ontology approach, which relates that the objective realism of the world depends on our knowledge towards its existence. Whereas, the critical theory believes that the objective reality which was dependent on our knowledge of it was driven by the natural law of inequality. (Hatch & Cunliffe, 2006) In terms of epistemology, the modernist approach is in positivism, unfolding reality through methods of reliable measurement and by developing theories to challenge the knowledge against the experimental world. In contrast, Critical theory perceives its epistemology as interpretivism, comprehending reality as being morphed to realize the dominant ideology and values. (Hatch & Cunliffe, 2006) Modernism reads organisations being real individuals who come about using the five senses to determine its realistic existence, while critical theory analyzes organisation as capitalist class relations between the owners and the labourers. The modernists are concerned in growing of the organisation efficiency and effectiveness, driven from the rules of rationality (Hatch & Cunliffe, 2006), whereas critical theorists are interested in unmasking the truth of domination in the organisation and to create a workplace democracy where oppression will not continue. (Edkins & Vaughan-Williams, 2009) It can be inferred that the critical theorists appears to challenge the ideology of the modernists, to develop a more appropriate practice that addresses...
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