Comparison of the Ability to Develop Competencies Among the Face-to-Face, E-learning, and B-learning Modalities: From Behaviorism or Constructivism Salvador Ceja Oseguera, María Josefina Rivero-Villar, Laura Mayela Ramírez Murillo, Tito Livio de la Torre Hidalgo Universidad Popular Autónoma del Estado de Puebla, Puebla, México
In a highly complex, competitive, and innovative globalized world, the topic of competencies has emerged as means to link universities with the real needs of the firms. But this topic far from being clear is confusing and ambiguous in the specialized literature. Competencies have been classified in education according to two approaches—behaviorism and constructivism and a polemic arises when trying to determine which of them prevails in higher education. The Mexican Ministry of Education (SEP) asserts that the constructivist approach prevails in Mexico, while the one behaviorist has considerably diminished in the face-to-face, e-learning, and b-learning modalities. A non-experimental, quantitative, descriptive, and simple cross-sectional research was designed with the aim to analyze the effectiveness of the different educational modalities to develop competencies at the undergraduate schools of the business area of UPAEP. The results show that a behaviorist approach prevails even if the discourse is constructivist. Keywords: education, instruction modalities, online, b-learning, behaviorism, constructivism
The topic of competencies was proposed in higher education to face the challenge of strengthening the teaching-learning process; but up to the present, it has been used in the face-to-face modality and there is little evidence of what e-learning and b-learning allow to develop. In this sense, it is obvious that the research problem of this investigation has not been answered by the studies on competencies made to this date. The term competencies, was applied to labor when it was first introduced, and its purpose was filling the gaps in the instruction for a job. But this situation has changed until becoming a new option in the education realms. According to the Organization for the Cooperation and Economic Development (OCED) DeSeCo (2005) Project, competencies are abilities to successfully satisfy the complex demands of a given context. Higher education has been enriched with new education modalities that stem from the development of Salvador Ceja Oseguera, Ph.D., Centro Interdisciplinario de Posgrados, Universidad Popular Autónoma del Estado de Puebla. María Josefina Rivero-Villar, Ph.D., Centro Interdisciplinario de Posgrados, Universidad Popular Autónoma del Estado de Puebla. Laura Mayela Ramírez Murillo, Ph.D., Escuela de Negocios, Universidad Popular Autónoma del Estado de Puebla. Tito Livio de la Torre Hidalgo, Ph.D., Escuela de Negocios, Universidad Popular Autónoma del Estado de Puebla. Correspondence concerning this article should be addressed to Salvador Ceja Oseguera, 17 Sur 901, Puebla, México, C.P. 72410. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org.
COMPARISON OF THE ABILITY TO DEVELOP COMPETENCIES
information and communication technologies (ICTs) and more recently with learning and knowledge technologies (LKTs) that have changed the educative process into a techno-educational one. Among the new modalities online courses (e-learning) and more recently blended courses (b-learning) outstand. The proliferation of both kinds of courses has allowed the incursion to new interactive forms of learning, where e-learning is centered in the intensive use of technical media (on-line courses, e-mail, audiovisuals, and so on) and the student is the center; although b-learning makes use of technical media (videoconferences), both student and teacher are the axis of the educative process and it is closer to the traditional concept of education (García, 2001). There is...