This paper will first briefly discuss the CSR theory by reviewing its development history. Focus will then be paid on the study of organizational social responsiveness, which includes two basic processes, namely first monitoring external social demands and expectations and then developing internal social mechanisms (Bartol, 2011). To be more precise, the author would like to study the social responsiveness from a CSR perspective. The following part of this research will make two case studies to further explain the theory abovementioned.
1. Definition of CSR
There is no clear definition of CSR. EC defines CSR as the responsibility of enterprises for what impact they can have on society. Since Oliver Sheldon (1924) first proposed the concept CSR, it has been defined as that corporate should not only shoulder economic and legal responsibility, but other social undertakings as well. Based on previous study, Carroll (1979) proposed CSR as a multi-leveled concept. This concept contains four interrelated aspects, i.e. economic, legal, ethical and philanthropic responsibilities. In addition, Carroll put forward a pyramid which can be used to analyze the dimension of CSR. The pyramid begins with economic responsibilities; people create companies to produce goods and services to the public while making profits. All the other three responsibilities rely upon this foundation. The next layer comprises the legal responsibilities of a company. As to the ethical responsibilities, they are practices belonging to what social public expect a company to do what is right and fair, but that are not covered by law. Lastly, companies have a philanthropic responsibility at the top of pyramid (Carroll, 1991).
2. Organisational social responsiveness
Instead of Corporation Social Responsiveness, this term expands the main body of social response, referring to the development of organisational decision processes. Managers make decisions during the processes by anticipating, responding to and managing areas of social responsibility (Bartol, 2012).Two aspects are included in the processes : First, monitoring social demands and expectations; Second, internal social response mechanisms.
In order to be socially responsive, organizations need to both analyse and evaluate social environment and management stakeholders relations, i.e. monitoring external environment. Apart from the first process, organizations need also create social response mechanisms.
2.1 Monitoring social demands and expectations
The following methods can be used to serve this purpose:
a. Social forecasting: often using futurists - systematically identifying social trends. b. Opinion surveys: polls and surveys - either generally available or specially commissioned. c. Social audits: study of an organisation’s social (rather than economic) performance. Some combine regular audits with surprise audits. d. Issues management: identifying specific issues for attention (to “reduce surprises” from environmental forces). e. Social scanning: monitoring task-environment elements - less formal and systematic than issues management.
2.2 Internal social response mechanisms
a. Individual executives: often used by smaller and medium sized companies. This can be risky without appropriate individual selection. b. Temporary task forces: small groups to enforce orders and settle problems. c. Permanent committees: fix the process as a general conduct d. Permanent departments: make it one of the basic function of the organization e. Combination approaches: in practice, organisations generally use some combination of approaches.
3. Case Study
3.1 Case Study 1: Conoco Phillips Company
ConocoPhillips Company is an American multinational energy corporation headquartered in Houston, Texas in the United States. It is the world's largest independent pure-play exploration &...