Management is the process by which people, technology, job tasks, and other physical resources are combined and coordinated so as to effectively achieve organizational objectives. A process or function is a group of related activities contributing to a larger action. Management functions are based on a common philosophy and approach. They center on the following: •Developing and clarifying mission, policies, and objectives of the agency or organization •Establishing formal and informal organizational structures as a means of delegating authority and sharing responsibilities •Setting priorities and reviewing and revising objectives in terms of changing demands •Maintaining effective communications within the working group, with other groups, and with the larger community •Selecting, motivating, training, and appraising staff
•Securing funds and managing budgets; evaluating accomplishments and being accountable to staff, the larger enterprise, and to the community at large The management functions listed above can be categorized by using the acronym POSDCORB (Bonoma & Slevin, 1978, from Gulick & Urwick, 1959): Planning: outlining philosophy, policy, objectives, and resultant things to be accomplished, and the techniques for accomplishment Organizing: establishing structures and systems through which activities are arranged, defined, and coordinated in terms of some specific objectives Staffing: fulfilling the personnel function, which includes selecting and training staff and maintaining favorable work conditions Directing: making decisions, embodying decisions in instructions, and serving as the leader of the enterprise Coordinating: interrelating the various parts of the work
Reporting: keeping those to whom you are responsible, including both staff and public, informed Budgeting: making financial plans, maintaining accounting and management control of revenue, and keeping costs in line with objectives Planning
Planning is the key management function of any organization. It is who should accomplish the process of determining in advance what, when, how, and at what cost. Regardless of whether it is planning long-term program priorities or planning a two-hour meeting, the planning aspect of management is the major contributor to success and productivity. Stated simply, "If you don't know where you are going, then you won't know when you have arrived!" Planning is the process of determining the organization's goals and objectives and making the provisions for their achievement. It involves choosing a course of action from available alternatives.
The function of planning includes:
•Organization mission statement – What
•Strategic analysis – Why
•Strategic formulation – Where
•Long-term objectives implementation - When and How
•Operational plans - When and How
Work-team objectives can include:
•Involving all levels of staff in consultation
•Designing and implementing a process to develop-goals and objectives for the organization and unit; a strategic process for the next five to ten years •Defining and clarifying organizational structures and identifying functions, customers, and service delivery models •Identifying changes and staged approaches needed to move from the current situation to what will be required over the next three to five years •Identifying and recommending priorities for policy development •Incorporating goals for expenditure reduction, service quality improvement, human resource management, accountability, technology, and business process improvement •Stating the start date and first report date
Once strategic planning and management planning are implemented, organizing to get the job done is next. Organizing is the process of establishing formal relationships among people and resources in order to reach specific goals and objectives. The process, according to Marshall (1992), is based on five organizing principles: unity...