Organizational Development Term Paper

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CHAPTER 2
REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE
2.1 MEANING OF HUMAN RESOURCE DEVELOPMENT (HRD)
(Rao 1990) Human resource development is the process of helping people to acquire expertise. In an organizational context, it is the process by which organizations help their employees in a continuous and planned way in order to: • acquire or sharpen the abilities required to perform various functions associated with their present or expected future roles;

• develop their general skills as individuals, discover and utilize their inner potential for their own and/or organizational development purposes; • develop an organizational culture in which supervisor subordinate relationships, teamwork and collaboration among sub-units are strong and contribute to the professional well-being, motivation, and pride of employees. The Human resource development process is facilitated by mechanisms (instruments or sub systems) such as performance appraisal, training, organizational development (OD) feedback and counseling, career development, potential development, job rotation and rewards. Employees are helped constantly in order to make them to acquire new skills. This aid is offered through a process of planning, performance, feedback and training. It also includes, assessment of the developmental needs, periodic reviews of performance, and the creation of development opportunities through training, job rotation, responsibility definition and similar other mechanisms.

THE CONCEPT OF HUMAN RESOURCE DEVELOPMENT (HRD)
Human resource development is a people-oriented concept that focuses on developing the skills, knowledge and competencies of people. Human resource development can be applied both at the organizational level as well as the national level. Various authors have not yet been fully successful in conceiving the whole concept of human resource development. They have defined the term from their standpoint due to the fact that it is a recent concept and therefore is still in the conceptualizing stage.

Lifelong learning has become an important topic under the globalization perspective, the whole world develops into a “learning society” (Gass, 1996). Work organizations are becoming important partners in this learning society, as they provide more and more opportunities for continuous learning to their employees with the objective to optimize organizational learning as a whole (Karen et al., 2001). Despite the growing number of publications on Human Resource Developments (HRDs) role in organizational learning many uncertainties remain. However, many interesting initiatives are being undertaken by HRD practitioners in facilitating employee learning and professional development (Tjepkema, 2000). Many organizations have renamed their training departments to human resource development departments. Surprisingly some organizations renamed their personnel departments to human resource development departments. Some educational institutions started awarding degrees and diplomas in human resource development, with the fact remaining that the concept is not yet crystal clear. It is a concept not so old that sufficient human input could have been possible.

The concept of human resource development was introduced by Nadler (1984) in a conference organized by the American society for training and development. Nadler (1984) defines human resource development as "Those learning experiences, which are organized for a specific time and designed to bring about the possibility of behavioral and attitudinal change.

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General Assembly resolution 44/213 of UN in 1989 states: Quote... “HRD is a broad concept--- requiring integrated and concentrated strategies, policies plans and programs to ensure the development of the full potential of human beings---so that they may, individually and collectively, be capable of improving their standard of living”.------unquote.

Alvin Toffler, the author of "future shock" and "The Third Wave" wrote about the importance of...
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