Organizational Culture promises to inspire its members to dedicate themselves to achieving the organizational purposes by uniting them in common goals behind a vision and set of values that everyone holds dear (Tompkin,2005). In public agencies, organizational culture offers a success built on responsiveness to the necessities and the apprehensions of the stakeholders without losing the sight of the agency’s mandate and the fundamental mission. In late 1970, American organizations were trying to adapt Japanese organizational management techniques. In the 1980s, there was an influx of women in the organizations which changed the management practices in American companies. At the same time, the American economy was facing an economic turbulence that resulted in major strategic changes and improvements in innovations, forcing the companies to adopt Japanese management styles. These factors moved the companies into unfamiliar areas of management regimes. Ouchi and Price in 1978 stressed the importance of hierarchies, clans and theory Z in organizations. Moreover, they throw light on the cohesive and overlapping group formations within organizations. People love to work in groups and share complex collective relationships. Companies benefit from the synergistic outcomes from these cohesive groups. The use of clan mechanisms of control permits the formation of cohesive work groups without threatening the basis of organizational efficiency. Wilkins (1983) expressed that every organization has its culture within itself. People working in the organization have their own assumptions about the culture of the organization. Wilkins further underlines that cultural audits help the organizations to distinguish between current and contemplated cultural differences. Cultural Audit is a process of understanding and fleshing out the underlying assumptions of the organizational culture. Cultural Audit helps the managers to explore the organizational culture and take the measures to make it effective work place for the rest of the employees. Koprowski (1983) stated that cultural myths are clues in effective management. These myths help managers to identify the emerging challenges within the organizations. Symbolically, managers are the mythological heroes who reach to a certain point in their development where they can easily identify the solution of the gender biases between men and women in the organization. Moreover, Koprowski also mentioned the prevailing conflict of beliefs between Japanese and American companies, which create a feeling of reluctance in American companies while adapting Japanese management culture.
Hierarchies, Clans and the Theory Z
William G. Ouchi, Raymond L. Price
In this article, Ouchi and Price (1978) emphasized the value of hierarchies and the clans in the organizations. Before concluding the importance of hierarchies, clans and theory Z, the two authors analyzed the theories given by the organizational development theorists. In their analysis they found that: Porras and Berg (1978) considered organizational Development (OD) and came up with the idea of change interventions based upon people and the organizational processes. On the basis of their analysis of these studies, OD relies on a processes and people-oriented approach; to change it depends upon small group techniques, the objectives of which are the improvement of both organizational effectiveness and individual psychological success. Social Problem of an Industrial Civilization: Mayo (1945) started the humanistic view of the organizations. Mayo’s central concern was the development of the cohesive groups in industrial settings. However he did not recognize hierarchy as the principal organizational tool of industrialization. Integrating the Individual and the Organization: Chris Argyris (1957, 1964) studied the individuals’ psychology for humanistic organizations. Argyris work emphasized on job enrichment,...