Organizational Climate and Teachers' Job Satisfaction in Residential and Non Residential Schools. By
Chairperson : Assoc. Prof. Dr. Aminah Ahmad
Faculty : Department of Extension Education
Faculty of Educational Studies, Universiti Putra Malaysia.
The usefulness of teacher perceptual data in school organizational climate and job satisfaction research was illustrated by a study of two selected residential and two non- residential schools in Kuala Lumpur. Seven school climate dimensions of mission and goal consensus, empowerment, student support, affiliation, professional interest, resource adequacy and work pressure were assessed by seventy teachers from residential schools and sixty four teachers from non residential schools. Comparisons of school climate in the selected residential and non residential schools revealed statistically significant difference on six dimensions, namely mission and goal consensus, empowerment, student support, affiliation, professional interest and resource adequacy. Teachers in the selected residential schools perceived more positive school environments compared with teachers in the selected non- residential schools. The selected schools teachers’ job satisfactions were determined by two separate measures of facet specific and facet free job satisfaction. Comparisons of teachers’ facet specific job satisfaction in residential and non-residential schools revealed no statistically significant difference on teachers’ intrinsic, extrinsic and social satisfaction. Nevertheless, comparisons of teachers’ facet free job satisfaction in residential and non residential schools revealed statistically significant difference on all the five global measures of occupation satisfaction, occupation expectation satisfaction, present job satisfaction, re-entry and optional retirement decision. Teachers in residential schools were found to be more satisfied with their facet free overall job satisfaction. Analysis for the combined sample revealed that majority of the teachers were satisfied with their social satisfaction; only three out of ten teachers perceived high level of intrinsic satisfaction while seven out of ten teachers were dissatisfied with extrinsic satisfaction. The overall job satisfaction for the combined sample was only at the medium level. This study also revealed that majority of the combined sample only perceived highly of affiliation while the perceptions for empowerment, student support, professional interest, mission and goal consensus, resource adequacy and work pressure dimensions were only at the medium level. Pearson’s correlation analysis revealed positive associations between the six school climate dimensions and facet specific and facet free overall job satisfaction. However, the work pressure dimension was negatively related to both measures of facet specific and facet free overall job satisfaction at 0.05 significant level. This study also revealed that facet specific and facet free measures of overall job satisfaction were by no means congruent.
The Problem and Its Context
In a recent New Straits Times (1997) report, Deputy Minister of Education, Dr. Fong Chan Onn was quoted as saying that teachers in Johore are leaving the country to work in Singapore. In the same report, the Deputy Minister revealed that many teachers are also leaving the government service for the private sectors. As the private schools and colleges mushroom, more government school teachers are leaving for these private educational institutions. Some teachers even resigned or opted out at the age of fifty to work in Brunei because of higher salary. This scenario indicates that some government school teachers are dissatisfied with the reward system and work environment in the government schools.
Under the New Remuneration System, government servants are allowed to opt for early retirement at the age of forty (KPM, 1994). When...