Organizational Behaviour - Theories of Learning

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Learning Any relatively permanent change in behaviour as result of experience

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Theories of learning:
Behavioral Theories – Most traditional & researched theory – Foundation of principles of learning; Org.reward systems & the behavioural management approach Classical Conditioning Ivon Pavlov (Russian) & John B. Watson (Amercian) – Attributed learning to the association/ connection between S – R Ivon Pavlov – measured the amount of saliva secreted by the dog: – Unconditional Stimulus (Meat) & Unconditional Response (Saliva) – Combined with Neutral Stimulus – ie., with Unconditional Stimulus (meat), the dog salivated (CR) to the sound of the bell (CS) Classical conditioning, therefore, is a process in which a formerly neutral stimulus (bell) when paired with unconditional stimulus (meat), becomes a conditional stimulus that elicits a conditional response. 2

Theories of learning:
Operant Conditioning Skinner (American Psychologist) - classical conditioning explains only respondent behaviour and these are involuntary responses that are elicited by a stimulus. Since human behaviour affects/ operates on the environment, the latter type of behaviour is learned through operant conditioning (learning that occurs as a consequence of behaviour). Skinner emphasized the role the consequences play in learning, I.e., (R – S) connections Therefore, behaviour is a function of its consequence. Both - called Connectionists theories. – Thus S – R deals with classical or respondent conditioning – R – S deals with instrumental or operant conditioning. 3

Theories of learning:
COGNITIVE - Edward Toleman (s – s) Toleman forerunner of modern social learning theory Cognitive learning consists of relationship between cognitive environmental cues & expectations. Rats run through the maze with purpose and direction toward a goal. At each choice point in the maze, expectations were established: that is, the rat learned to expect that certain cognitive cues associated with the...
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