DATE:05 APRIL 2009
Using shaping as a management tool4-7
Factors that may contribute to differences in patterns of job satisfaction12-15 Factors that differentiate good decision makers from poor ones16-19 Bibliography20-21
According to Robbins, Judge, Odendaal and Roodt (2009:7), Organizational behavior is a field of study that investigates the impact that individuals, groups, and structure have on behavior within organizations. It says in (Human Behavior: 2009) human behavior is more complex; their diversity can limit the ability to develop simple, accurate, and sweeping generalizations. In organizational behavior, most of our generalizations are stated in a form of contingency. For example, we know that money motivates people under some conditions, but not all. Similarly, change is more effective if people affected participate in the change process-but not always. From the above finding it can be seen that these individuals that make the different groups to form an organization react differently under same conditions due to different personalities, environments that they were brought under, beliefs, attitudes etc. Most of these factors will be looked at and be assessed to find a feasible conclusion that could add value in an organization. The below factors will be tackled in this study.
✓ Using shaping as a management tool
✓ Factors that may contribute to differences in patterns of job satisfaction ✓ Factors that differentiate good decision makers from poor ones
Different sources of information (Text books and Internet) will be looked at to find information on the above aspects, Company reports and information from managers could also be used to strengthen or support the findings from text books and internet, Current affairs story will be looked at as well in order to bring or to link this research with day to day issues that we hear and read about.
Using shaping as a management tool
Shaping could be used as a management tool to shape different things in an organization; it could also be used to shape an individual’s behavior. According to (Shaping Behavior: 2001), shaping behavior is an aspect of behavior analysis that gradually teaches new behavior through the use of reinforcement until the target behavior is achieved (Wolfgang 272). In order for shaping to be successful, it is important to clearly define the behavioral objective and the target behavior. Also, in order to gradually achieve the target behavior, a manager must know when to deliver or withhold reinforcement (Wolfgang 37). Many behaviors are taught by shaping, and it is used in many different settings. For example, parents use shaping when they praise a young child profusely the first time he dresses himself, even if he has made a few mistakes. Later, they will only complement the child if he has dressed himself perfectly (Alberto and Troutman, 2003). In (Types of reinforcement: 2009) B.F. Skinner, the researcher who articulated the major theoretical constructs of reinforcement and behaviorism, refused to specify causal origins of reinforcers. Skinner argued that reinforcers are defined by a change in response strength (that is, functionally rather than causally), and that which is a reinforcer to one person may not be to another. Accordingly, activities, foods or items which are generally considered pleasant or enjoyable may not necessarily be reinforcing; they can only be considered so if the behavior that immediately precedes the potential reinforcer increases in similar future situations. If a child receives a cookie when he or she asks for one, and the frequency of 'cookie-requesting...