Different Types of values
We can classify values in may forms .Several decades ago ,Milton Rokeach created the Rokeach Value Survey which consist of two sets of values , with each set containing 18 individual value items. One set is called terminal values which is the goals that a person would like to achieve during his or her life-time while the other is called instrumental values which refers to preferable modes of behaviour or means of achieving the terminal values(Robbins,2001 , p.71).
However, the RVS was neither accurate nor useful, another model of values came out. It’s developed and tested by social psychologist Shalom Schwartz and his colleagues. Schwartz reported that human values are organised into a circular model which organises values into ten broad categories and these categories are further reduced to two bipolar dimensions. One dimension has the opposing value domains of openness to change and conservation. The other bipolar dimension has the opposing value domains of self-enhancement and self-transcendence (McShane, Olekalns & Travaglione,2010,p.60).
Furthermore, Hunt ( 2004 ,p.75) presents a more recent values schema ,developed by maglino and associates ,is aimed at people in the workplace: achievement, helping and concern for others, honesty and fairness. The four values have been shown to be...