Learning and reinforcement43
Values, Attitudes and Interest 53
Personality is a concept that we use continuously in our day-to-day routine, when dealing with people. We talk about people as having a good personality or a bad personality or arrogant and aggressive personality. Personality can be reflected in a person’s temperament and is a key factor influencing individual behaviour in organizations. Often the wrong type of personality of a superior proves disastrous in terms of worker unrest and protests.
Salvatore Maddi has defined personality as:
“Personality is a stable set of characteristics and tendencies that determine those commonalities and differences in the psychological behaviour (thoughts, feelings and actions) of people that have continuity in time and that may not be easily understood as the sole result of the social and biological pressures of the moment.”
There are several aspects of this definition that need to be considered. The first aspect is that or relative stability of characteristics. These characteristics account for “consistent patterns” of behaviour.
The second aspect is the “commonalities and differences” in the behaviour of people. We are interested in understanding as to what an individual has in common with others as well as what sets that individual apart from others. Every person is in certain aspects,
•Like all other people
•Like some other people
•Like no other person
There are two types of individual personality Type A and Type B. A person exhibiting Type A behaviour is generally restless, impatient with a desire for quick achievement and perfectionism. Type B is much more easy going relaxed about time pressure, less competitive and more philosophical in nature. Some of the characteristics of Type A personality are given below.
•Is restless, so that he always moves, walks and eats rapidly. •Is impatient with the pace of things, dislikes waiting and is impatient with those who are not impatient. •Does several things at once.
•Tries to schedule more and more in less and less time, irrespective of whether everything is done or not. •Usually does not complete one thing before starting on another. •Uses nervous gestures such as clenched fist and banging on table. •Does not have time to relax and enjoy life.
Type B behaviour is just the opposite and is more relaxed, sociable and has a balanced outlook on life.
Type A behaviour profile tends to be obsessive and managers with such behaviour are hard driving, detailed-oriented people with high performance standards.
Five personality traits related to job performance
•Openness to experience.
Factors Contributing to Personality
According to Maier, “knowledge, skill and language are obviously acquired and represent important modifications of behaviour. Learned modifications in behaviour are not passed on to children, they must be acquired by them through their own personal experience.”
The probable consensus is that heredity and environment jointly affect personality development. The full potential of a person may or may not be achieved due to environmental constraints and requirements, but the potential for development, both physically and psychologically is determined by the complex set of genes.
The factors affecting personality development are illustrated as follows:
Some of the more important dimensions of personality that are closely linked with interpersonal and organizational behaviour are discussed as follows:
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