Motivation Concepts: Early Theories of Motivation
Motivation: What is it?
Motivation- result of the interaction between the individual and the situation/ environment. Motivation: The processes that account for an individual’s intensity, direction, and persistence of effort toward attaining a goal*/ meeting physical or psychological needs or wants. * general goal/ an organizational goal- specifically in organizational context.
Three key elements:
Intensity – how hard a person tries (quantitative aspect) Direction – effort that is channeled toward, and consistent with, organizational goals (qualitative aspect) Persistence – how long a person can maintain effort
Early Theories of Motivation
These early theories may not be valid, but they do form the basis for contemporary theories and are still used by practicing managers.
Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs Theory
Alderfer’s ERG (Existence, Relatedness, and Growth)
McGregor’s Theory X and Theory Y Herzberg’s Two-Factor Theory McClelland’s Theory of Needs
Hierarchy of Needs Theory by Abraham Maslow
There is a hierarchy of five needs. As each need is substantially satisfied, the next need becomes dominant. Assumptions Higher Order Needs: Internal
Self-Actualization Esteem Social
Lower Order Needs: External
Individuals cannot move to the next higher level until all needs at the current (lower) level are satisfied Must move in hierarchical order
Alderfer’s ERG Theory
Reworking on Maslow’s need hierarchy to align it more closely with empirical research.
Three groups of core needs:
Existence (similar to Maslow’s physiological and safety needs) Relatedness (similar to Maslow’s social needs), and Growth (similar to Maslow’s esteem and self-actualization needs) An individual could focus on all the three needs simultaneously
Removed the hierarchical assumption
Popular, but not accurate, theory
McGregor’s Theory X and Theory Y
Two distinct views of human beings: Theory X (basically negative) and Theory Y (positive). Managers used a set of assumptions based on these views The assumptions mold their behaviour toward employees Theory X Theory Y • Workers have little ambition • Dislike work • Avoid responsibility • Workers are self-directed • Enjoy work • Accept responsibility
No empirical evidence to support this theory.
Herzberg’s Two-Factor Theory / Motivation- Hygiene Theory Herzberg’s Basic Quest- “What do people want from their jobs?”, “What motivates employeejob contents or working conditions?”
Extrinsic Factors: Related to Dissatisfaction
Intrinsic Factors: Related to Satisfaction
Two-Factor Theory (contd. ..)
Contrasting views of Key Point: Satisfaction and dissatisfaction are Satisfaction & Dissatisfaction Traditional view not opposites but separate constructs. Dissatisfaction In fact, they exist as a Satisfaction dual continuum. Herzberg’s View MOTIVATORS
Factors that lead to job satisfaction- distinct & HYGIENE FACTORS separate from factors No Dissatisfaction Dissatisfaction that lead to job dissatisfaction.
Criticisms of Two-Factor Theory
Herzberg says that hygiene factors must be met to remove dissatisfaction. If motivators are given, then satisfaction can occur. Herzberg’s respondents comprised of architects and engineers. So, it is limited by his procedure
How could we generalize it? Participants attributed –ve feelings in job (dissatisfaction) to external factors and happiness/ +ve feelings to internal factors
Participants had self- serving bias
Later researchers found that a specific variable (like pay) can be a source of either satisfaction or dissatisfaction, depending on the person. Impact of external factors (such as health and family tensions) on work behaviour- highly ignored. No overall measure of...