Questions on Organizational Behavior
Prepared by Dr. Stephen Hartman, School of Management, New York Institute of Technology. 1. How have American companies suffered in recent years?
In an effort to reduce costs, restructuring and downsizing have affected almost every organization. However, recent research suggests that there are costs for these organizations in terms of their impaired ability to perform long term. Many companies have shown poor leadership when trying to capitalize on technological breakthroughs; e.g., Kodak; Xerox. 2. What are some of the new challenges confronting managers in today's business environment? The global, one-world economy is changing the nature of competition. The second generation of the Information Age, marked by advances in decision support and telecommunications technology, is changing the nature of work in all organizations. The "quality Service Revolution" is changing the focus of competition among world competitors as product and service quality become increasingly important to consumers, both internally and externally. 3. What are the three dimensions of management and how are they important. The three dimension of management are technical, conceptual, and human. It is absolutely essential for managers to develop meaningful solutions to today's complex management problems by using innovative technological solutions that provide answers to problems people and organizations are having. Furthermore, it is critical to management's success that they be able to meaningfully understand human resource needs and be able to successfully deploy these resources. 4. What are the differences between organizational behavior, organization theory (OT), personnel/human resources (P/HR), and organization development? Organizational behavior is theoretical and micro-oriented. OT is theoretical and macro-oriented. P/HR is applied and micro-oriented. OD is applied and macro-oriented. 5. Discuss Henri Fayol's contributions to organizational theory. Henri Fayol has been called the father of management. Henri Fayol was a successful French industrialist. He also created the first school of management. He was responsible for developing the major classical management concepts of planning, organizing, developing, staffing, coordinating, and budgeting (PODSCORB). He also was the first to develop the importance of lateral communications with his gang plank theory of communications in organization. Henri Fayol belongs to the administrative management branch of the classical school. His entire working career was spent with a mining company, Commentary-Fourchambault Company, where he rose from an apprentice to General Manager in 1888 remaining there until his retirement in 1918. He is credited with turning the company around from a threatened bankruptcy into a strong financial position by the time of his retirement at age 77. As a result of his management experience, Fayol strongly believed management theories could be developed and taught to others. His first writing on administration, Administration Industrielle et Generale, was published in 1916 in the Bulletin of the Society of Mineral Industries and later appeared as a book. The book became prominent in the United States after a second English translation appeared in 1949 under the title General and Industrial Management. Henri Fayol's Fourteen Management Principles
a. Division of Work. Division of work, specialization, produces more and better work with the same effort. It focuses effort while maximizing employee efforts. It is applicable to all work including technical applications. There are limitations to specialization which are determined by its application. b. Authority and responsibility. Authority is the right to give orders and the power to exact obedience. Distinction must be made between a manager's official authority deriving from office and personal authority created through individual personality, intelligence and experience....
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