Luthans (1995) stated that organizational behaviour is about the study of human’s behaviour in an organization which included the understanding, prediction and control of human behaviour. In any organization, individual members made up the whole organization structure. So, individual is the most important element that influences the organizational behaviour. No matter individual acting alone or in the group, how they behave may affect the whole organization. Therefore, it is important for a manager to understand the behaviour of individuals, groups and patterns of structure within an organization in order to enhance organizational effectiveness.
INDIVUDUAL CHARACTERICTICS IN AN ORGANIZATION
Iindividual differences are the basis of diversity in an organization which forms different individual behaviour. It can forms creativity and satisfaction at work but can also be the root of conflict and frustration. Manager has the responsibility to understand different individual characteristics in order to determine whether he or she matches the requirement of the organization as well as for the purpose of rewards and punishments towards their performance. First of all, Individual can be differs in the form of personality, ability and intelligence. Other than that, some biographical characteristics also form individual differences. These different attributes and characteristics shape one’s values and performance in an organization. Biographical Characteristics
Biographical Characteristics like age, gender, race and tenure are personal characteristics which can objective and easily obtained from personnel records. (Stephen & Timothy 2007)
According to Malaysian Employers Federation (MEF), Malaysia retirement age had been raised from 55 years old to 60 years old. So, manager might have to pay attention of the relationship between age and job performance. For instance, Henry, a staff who aged 59 in company may perceive as lack of resistant to new technology but what they have are experience, judgement, strong work ethic and commitment to quality that are more than the young. b) Gender
The differences between men and women will affect their job’s performance. For instance, studies have shown that women analyse decisions more than men do. However, there are no significant differences in job productivity. In fact, there are still differences in gender which would affect their performance such as absenteeism and turnover. For instance, Gina, a female staff may prefer part-time work or flexible work schedule if she get married and has child in order to take care of her child and family. In addition, if her child is ill, she might need to apply leave from work. c) Race
Although race is a controversial issue, manager still has to pay attention to the company staff’s race. Malaysia has different race. The three most significant are the Chinese, Malay and Indian. Different race have their different culture and each race should respect the others. However, race still relates to employment outcomes such as personnel selection decision, performance evaluation, pays and workplace discrimination. d) Tenure
Tenure means that the seniority. So, tenure relates to work experience and it is good for productivity. In terms of absenteeism, many studies showed that tenure is not related with absenteeism. In addition, tenure of a staff in previous company is very useful for present manager to predict the chance of turnover in the future. Lastly, manager can predict the staff’s satisfaction of the job by the tenure of the staff. Ability
According to Stephen and Timothy (2007), an individual’s potential to perform several tasks in a job is called ability. Everyone have the strength and weakness in terms of ability. Different jobs require different skills and abilities. As well as in an organization, different staff have been allocate to different department according to their...