Chapter 1: Introduction
Chapter 1: Introduction to Organizational Behaviour
A. Definition of OB
B. Review of Management
C. Brief History of OB
D. Different Strands to Analyze OB
E. Social Sciences
iii. Other Fields
F. Specific Models of OB
i. Scientific Management
iii. Human Relations Movement
iv. Socio-Technical Systems/Contingency Approach v. Pursuit of Excellence
vi. Unitarist or Pluraist
G. Hard and Soft Approaches to OB
H. Positivism and Phenomenology
Chapter 2: Foundations of Individual Behavior
A. Working with Individual Differences
B. Different Models Why People Have Different Personalities i. Psychoanalysis
iii. Humanistic Psychology
iv. Other Theories of Personality
I. Introduction to Organizational Behavior
A. Organizational Behavior (OB)
* Study of what people do in organizations and why they do it. * Understanding, prediction, and management of human behaviour in organizations. B. Review of Management
* Management is the process of planning, organizing, leading, and controlling an organization’s human, financial, material, and other resources to increase its effectiveness. * An organization is a collection of people who work together to achieve individual and organizational goals * Individual goals are what people are trying to accomplish for themselves such as earning a lot of money, achieving power and prestige, and enjoying work.
* Organizational goals are what the organization as a whole is trying to accomplish such as providing innovative products and services to customers, making a profit, and achieving high levels of market share.
OB and Management
* OB and Planning: The study of OB reveals how decisions are made in organizations and how politics and conflict affect the planning process. It shows how group decision making and biases can affect planning. * OB and Organizing: OB offers guidelines on how to organize employees to make the best use of their skills and capabilities. * OB and Leading: The study of different leadership methods and of how to match leadership style to the characteristics of the organization and all its components is a major concern of OB. * OB and Controlling: The theories and concepts of organizational behavior allow managers to understand and accurately diagnose work situations in order to pinpoint where corrective action may be needed.
OB Approach to Management
* OB represents the human side of management, not the whole of management. * All managers, regardless of their technical function, need to have an understanding and perspective of OB. C. Brief History of OB
* The systematic study of OB began in the closing decades of the nineteenth century after the industrial revolution. * Frederick Taylor (1856-1915) is best known for defining the techniques of scientific management. Taylor was a manufacturing manager who eventually became a consultant and taught other managers how to apply the principles of scientific management. * Mary Parker Follett (1868-1933) was concerned that Taylor was ignoring the human side of the organization. Her approach was very radical for the time. * The Hawthorne Studies refers to a series of studies conducted from 1924 to 1932 at the Hawthorne Works of the Western Electric Company. The study was initiated to investigate how the level of lighting would affect employee fatigue and performance. The researchers conducted an experiment in which they systematically...