Semester 1, 2012
Student Name: Dylan Ka Nam Cheng
Student Number: 21023224
In general, organizational behavior (OB) is the study about people behavior within the organization. In OB, researcher studied employee behavior, decision, perception and emotional responses, which are correlated to the policies of the organization. It would also focus on employee motivation, employee decision-making process and how individuals work with a team in the organization. Besides, OB would study how power influences an organization and the communication between different departments within the corporation. Organization effectiveness is a core concept among all organization behavior theories. Basically there are four perspectives that are commonly used in OB research, which are open-system perspective, organization learning perspective, high-performance work practices perspective and stakeholder perspective. The four perspectives define the definition of organization effectiveness all together nowadays. In the following, it would define the concept of the four perspectives first. After that it would examine one of the OB focusing area – employee motivation in the workplace and related its theories with all the perspectives.
Defining the four perspectives
Open system perspective
Open system perspectives described organization operating as an organism that has to associate with the external environment. Organizations receive input from the external environment that included raw material, employees, information, financial resources etc. Output is transformed from the input within the organization, which included products/service, profits/losses, waste/pollution and employee behavior. To enhance the organization efficiency, which means organization produce more product and service with less input resources, it is determined by how well the subsystem work with each other within the organization. The organization efficiency also determined by lean management which describing the degree of reducing waste during the producing process within the company.
Organization learning perspective (OLP)
In OLP, it is stressing that the organizational effectiveness is mainly based on how much knowledge an organization have acquire, store and use. Organization can acquire knowledge form the external source includes employee, knowledge from research or even by takeover others company. All the organization knowledge is stored as intellectual capital; it can be divided into 3 parts; human capital, structural capital and relationship capital. Human capital included the knowledge, skills and ability that the employee had. It can be transfer to the structural capital even the employee left the company. Structural capital is about the knowledge store and keeps in the organization structure, for instead all the documentation, database and the project proposal. Relationship capital is illustrating the relationship built up between the customers, suppliers, manufacturer and the company For the issue of how to store the intellectual capital, OLP suggested the concept of ‘organization memory’, which stated 3 way to retain intellectual capital; keeping good employee, ask employee to transfer their knowledge to others and encourage employee to documented their knowledge in company database. Successful companies also unlearn the old perspective that no longer appropriate to this extent.
High-Performance Work Practices Perspective
In HPWP perspective, the organizations that amplified the potential of human capital are having the most effective outcome. HPWP emphasized that human capital is unique, rare valuable and is an important sources of competitive advantage for organization Organization can be develop and benefit from human capital through specific workplace practices; there are four practices that have strong research...