Organization Restructuring

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Organization Development: Techno-Structural Interventions

Prepared by the Master’s Students in
Industrial-Organizational Psychology

Radford University
Class of 2001

Edited by
Piper & Associates, Inc.

Organization Development: Techno-Structural Interventions
Prepared by the Master’s Students in Industrial-Organizational Psychology Radford University
Class of 2001

Organization development activities can be directed toward individuals, groups, divisions, or entire organizations. Regardless of whether the recipient of an intervention is a person or a multi-national corporation, the ultimate goal is the same: to improve the effectiveness of the organization. This document reviews selected techno-structural interventions – change programs focusing on the structure and/or technology of the organization. Each intervention’s purpose, cost, procedures, expected results, likely results as documented in the literature, and reports of industry use are provided, along with a list of relevant references. Most summaries provide the following information, though some will have more or less.

1. NAME OF INTERVENTION:Most commonly used name, along with alternatives.

2. TARGET LEVEL(S) OF ANALYSIS:Is it directed toward organization-wide, group/ unit/ department, or individual change?

3. PURPOSE OF THE INTERVENTION:What is the primary goal of the intervention?

4. EFFECTIVENESS CRITERIA:What are the most appropriate outcomes (behaviors, attitudes, knowledge, skills, performance measures) to assess?

5. EVIDENCE OF EFFECTIVENESS:a. What does the literature suggest regarding the likely outcomes of the intervention? Effect sizes are reported where available. b. What organizations, groups, individuals have used this intervention? Exemplary case studies are reported where available.

6. HOW/WHEN WILL OUTCOMES BE ASSESSED:How has the intervention been evaluated?

7. CHARACTERISTICS OF TYPICAL PARTICIPANTS:CEO, upper or lower management, new hires, blue collar, education level, etc., of typical participants are reported.

8. TIME-FRAME OF THE INTERVENTION ITSELF:How long does the intervention take?

9. TIME-FRAME OF ANTICIPATED CHANGE:When should results be observed?

10. RESOURCES TO CONDUCT INTERVENTION:Internal/external consultant(s), technology, space, physical environment, money, time, support staff, etc., necessary for implementation.

11. EXPERTISE OF CONSULTANTS:Training or education or experience requirements to cconduct the intervention are provided.

12. DO PARTICIPANTS NEED TO PREPARE:Are there pre-intervention instructions? Does the organization, group, or individual need to be involved in planning?

13. HOW IS THE INTERVENTION CONDUCTED:A detailed description of the conduct of each intervention is provided.

14. RESISTANCE TO CHANGE:Are participants likely to resist change? How can that be overcome?

15. MAINTAINING CHANGE:What should be done to minimize the return to old habits?

16. FOLLOW-UP:Is follow-up needed?

17. SPECIAL CONSIDERATIONS/CRITIQUE:What else do we need to know?

18. REFERENCES:Citations (particularly for Sections 5 (a & b), 13, and 14) are provided.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Intervention NamePage

Total Quality Management ………………………………………………………. 5 Employee Empowerment Programs ………………………………………………15 Quality of Work Life Programs …………………………………………………..26 Implementing a Team-based (AWG, etc.) Organization …………………………34 ISO 9000 and Beyond …………………………………………………………….47 Process Reengineering ……………………………………………………………54 Organization Restructuring (downsizing, rightsizing, mergers, acquisitions) ……61

Total Quality Management
(prepared by Julie Martin)

2. TARGET LEVEL OF ANALYSIS:
TQM programs are directed at the entire organization including the suppliers and its customers. Although quality at the individual level is important, the successful TQM program calls for...
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