PAMANTASAN NG LUNGSOD NG MAYNILA
Graduate School of Management
ORGANIZATION AND MANAGEMENT
Wrriten Report on
CLASSICAL ORGANIZATION THEORY
Organizational theory is the study of formal social organizations, such as businesses and bureaucracies, and their interrelationship with the environment in which they operate. It complements the studies of leadership, organizational behavior, management, industrial and organizational psychology, organization development and human resource studies among many other fields and professions.
CLASSICAL MANAGEMENT THEORIES
(1900 - 1920)
Classical Management Theory was introduced in the late 19th century during the Industrial Revolution. The Industrial Revolution was a time when innovation really began to change the way products were produced and sold. The invention of machines to produce goods in the 19th century drastically improved productivity and in turn lowered consumer cost. The lower price resulted in the greater demand for products and thus a greater need for more factories and workers. At the time, managers were interested in finding ways to to improve productivity, lower cost, increase quality of their products, improve employee/manager relationships, and increase efficiency. The main concern for Classical Management Theorist was to find the best possible way for workers to perform and manage their task. Classical Management Theory is comprised of three separate branches: Scientific Management, Bureaucratic Management, and Administrative Management.
Frederick Taylor and Scientific Management Theory
Taylor (Frederick Winslow Taylor – March 20, 1856 – March 21, 1915), was an American mechanical engineer who originally sought to improve industrial efficiency. A management consultant in his later years, he is sometimes called "the father of scientific management." He was one of the intellectual leaders of the Efficiency Movement and his ideas, broadly conceived, were highly influential in the Progressive Era.
Taylor was also an accomplished tennis player. He won the first doubles tournament in the 1881 U.S. National Championships (later called the US Open), with Clarence Clark.
In 1911, Frederick Winslow Taylor published his work, The Principles of Scientific Management, in which he described how the application of the scientific method to the management of workers greatly could improve productivity. Scientific management methods called for optimizing the way that tasks were performed and simplifying the jobs enough so that workers could be trained to perform their specialized sequence of motions in the one "best" way.
Prior to scientific management, work was performed by skilled craftsmen who had learned their jobs in lengthy apprenticeships. They made their own decisions about how their job was to be performed. Scientific management took away much of this autonomy and converted skilled crafts into a series of simplified jobs that could be performed by unskilled workers who easily could be trained for the tasks.
Taylor became interested in improving worker productivity early in his career when he observed gross inefficiencies during his contact with steel workers. Soldiering
Working in the steel industry, Taylor had observed the phenomenon of workers' purposely operating well below their capacity, that is, soldiering. He attributed soldiering to three causes: 1. The almost universally held belief among workers that if they became more productive, fewer of them would be needed and jobs would be eliminated. 2. Non-incentive wage systems encourage low productivity if the employee will receive the same pay regardless of how much is produced, assuming the employee can convince the employer that the slow pace really is a good pace for the job. Employees take great care never to work at a good pace for fear that this faster pace would become the new standard. If employees are paid by...
Please join StudyMode to read the full document