Organization Development

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Warren Bennis has differentiated between organic and mechanical systems. These differences are shown in the following table: No.| Points of Difference| Organic Systems| Mechanical Systems| 1.| Definition| Here organic means consisting of related parts. In organic systems group of individuals with same nature are left go on their own responsibility without interference from outside.| Mechanical means done without thought, which led to the process of automation. Mechanical systems make the people bound to work.| 2.| Encouragement| Organic systems encourage decentralized decision making and open communication.| Mechanical systems encourage centralized authority decision making by ignoring subordinates’ opinion and participation.| 3.| Reliance| Organic systems rely on mutual confidence and trust.| Mechanical systems rely on authority obedience relationship.| 4.| Environment| In an environment of high change, an organic system is preferred.| In an environment of slow change, mechanical system is preferred.|

Table: Difference between Organic and Mechanical Systems
From the above table, distance on between organic systems and mechanical systems of performing development activities has been shown. Both are being followed subject to the variations in size.

In 1969 Richard Beckhard one of the major researcher in the field of organization development described several assumptions about the nature of organization. The assumptions may be held by OD practitioners. His assumptions are mentioned below:

7.1 Basic Units of Change:
Groups or teams are the basic parts of an organization. So, the basic units of change are groups not individuals.

7.2 Relevant Change:
A relevant change goal is the reduction of inappropriate competition among various parts of an organization. This type of development is more collaborative in nature.

7.3 Decision Making:
Decision making of a healthy organization takes place the location of source of information. It is not taken in particular role or level of hierarchy.

7.4 Making Against Goals:
A good number of organizations, sub units and people manage their affairs against goals. They take control as interim measure on the base of managerial strategy.

7.5 Open Communication:
A healthy organization develops open communication, mutual trust and confidence among different levels. Thus they make decisions.

7.6 Support:
The support of people is very important for making plash and emolument change. Through active participation this support can be ensured.

Robert Tannenbaum, professor at UCLA, and Sheldon Davis, director of organization development at TRW Systems, presented their view of OD values in a 1969 article. They asserted that an important a shift in values was occurring and that this shift signaled a more appropriate and accurate view of people in organizations. They listed these “values in transition” as follows: 8.1 View of People:

Away from view of people as essentially bad toward a view of people as basically good. 8.2 Avoidance of Evaluation:
Away from avoidance of negative evaluation of individuals toward confirming them as human beings. 8.3 View of Individuals:
Away from a view if individuals as fixed, forward seeing them as being process.

8.4 Resisting Individuals:
Away from resisting and fearing individual differences toward accepting and utilizing them.

8.5 Utilizing Individuals:
Away from utilizing an individual primarily with reference to his/her job description toward viewing him/her as whole people.

8.6 Walling off Expression :
Away from walling off the expression of feelings toward making possible both appropriate expression and effective use.

8.7 Marksmanship:
Away from marksmanship...
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