Organizational climate is comprised of mixture of norms, values, expectations, policies and procedures that influence work motivation, commitment and ultimately, individual and work unit performance. Positive climate encourages, while negative climates inhibits discretionary effort. ‘Organizational climate’ refers to the quality of working environment. If people feel that they are valued and respected within the organization, they are more likely to contribute positively to the achievements of the business outcomes. Creating a healthy organizational climate requires attention to the factors which influence employee’s perceptions, including the quality of leadership, the way in which decisions are made and whether the efforts of employees are recognized. In fact “Climate may be thought of as the perceptions of the characteristics of an organization”. “Climate for an organization is somewhat like the personality for a person. Just as every individual has a personality that makes each person unique, each organization has an organizational climate that clearly distinguishes its personality from other organization. Every organization is different and has a unique feeling and character beyond its structural characteristics. Thus every organization deals with its member in a distinct way through its policies on allocations of resources, communication pattern, reward and penalty, leadership and decision making style, etc. The organizational policy and conviction with regard to all these and a cluster of other related activities influence the feelings, attitudes and behavior of its members and results in the creation of the unique organizational climate.
1.2 Industry profile
Milk producing animals have been domesticated for thousands of years. Initially, they were part of the subsistance farming that namds engaged in. As the community moved about the country, their animals and the herders. In the more recent past, people in agricultural societies owned dairy animals that they milked for domestic and local consumption, a typical example of a cottage industry. The animals might serve multiple purposes(for example, as a graught animal for pulling a plough as a youngster, and at the end of its useful life as meat). In this case the animals normally milked by hand and te herd size was quite small, so that all of the animals could be milked in less than an hour-about 10 per milker. These tasks were performed by a dairymaid or dairyman. With industrilazation the apply of milk became commercial industry, with specalizad breeds of cattle being developed for dairy, as distinct from beef or draught animals. Initially, more people were employeed as milkers, but it soon turned to mechanization with machines desighned to do the milking. Hihstorically, the milking and the processing took place close together in space and time on dairy farm. People milked the animals by hand: on farms where only small numbers are kept, hand-milking may still be practised. Hand-milking is accomplished by grasping the teats in the hand and expressing the milk either by squeezing the fingers progressively from the udder end to the tip, or by squeezing the teat between thumb and index finger, then moving the hand downward from udder towards the end of the teat. The action of the hand or fingers is designed to close off the milk duct at the udder end and, by the movement of the fingers, close the duct progressively to the tip to express the trpped milk. Each half or quarter of the udder is emptied one milk-duct capacity at a time. Traditionally the cow or cows, would stand in the field or paddock while being milked. Young stock, heifers, would have to be trained t oremain still to milked. In many countries, the cows were tethered to a post and milked. The problem with this method is that it relies on quiet, tractable beasts, because the hind end of the cow is not restrained. However there are claims that this practice can have negative...
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