Organization Behaviour: Emerging Knowledge and Practice for the Real World.(Textbook Summary)

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Organizational Behavior and Design Chapter 2 – Individual Behavior, Values & Personality MARS Model of Individual Behavior & Results (Pg 34) - Employee engagement covers all four MARS driven indv behavior and results - M (Motivation), A (Ability), R (Role Perceptions) and S (Situational Factors) have combined effect on individual performance o If any factor weakens, employee performance will decrease - [1] Personality, [2] values, [3] individual perceptions and learning, [4] emotions and attitudes and [5] stress influence M, A, R and S o [1] Personality and [2] values are most stable characteristics o [4] Emotions and attitudes and [5] stress are most fluid characteristics o [3] Individual perceptions and learning lie somewhere between - Employee Motivation (Forces within person affecting [1] direction, [2] intensity and [3] persistence of voluntary behavior) o Direction refers to fact that motivation is goal-oriented, not random o Intensity is amount of effort allocated to goal o Persistence refers to continuing effort for certain amount of time - Ability (Both [1] natural aptitudes and [2] learned capabilities required to successfully complete task) o Aptitudes are natural talents helping employees learn specific tasks more quickly and perform them better eg being able to manipulate small objects better o Learned capabilities refer to skills and knowledge acquired. Physical and mental skills possessed ot required for later use. o Employee Competencies (Skills, knowledge, aptitudes and other characteristics of people leading to superior performance)  Problem 1 - Disagreement whether competencies should include personal values and personality traits  Problem 2 - Some companies describe competencies so broadly that they are difficult to measure or understand  Problem 3 - Most firms try to identify single cluster of competencies, but researchers increasingly believe alternative combinations of competencies may be equally successful o Person-Job Matching  Method 1 – Select applicants whose existing competencies best fit required tasks (Compare their requirements with the job unit)  Method 2 – Provide training so employees develop required skills and knowledge  Method 3 – Redesign job so employees are only given tasks within capabilities - Role Perceptions (Possesses RP in 3 ways: [1] understands the specific tasks assigned, [2] understand the relative importance of the task and [3] understands preferred behaviors to accomplish those tasks) o Organizations improve role perceptions by [1] ensuring clear job descriptions, [2] ongoing coaching and [3] showing how goals relate of organizational goals o Employees clarify role perceptions by [1] working together over time and [2] receiving frequent and meaningful performance feedback o Results: ore engage to their work because they know where to direct their effort 1

Organizational Behavior and Design Situational Factors o Situational factors are factors beyond employee’s and organization’s control that constrain or facilitate their behavior and performance o Beyond control/External situations: [1] consumer preferences and [2] economic conditions o Controlled by people in organization are [1] time, [2] people, [3] budget and [4] physical work facilities o Corporate leaders need to carefully arrange these so employees can achieve max potential

Types of Individual Behavior in Organizations (Pg 38) - Task Performance (Goal-directed behaviors under individual’s control that support organizational objectives) o Include [1] physical behaviors and [2] mental processes leading to behaviors - Exhibiting Organizational Citizenship (Behaviors that extend beyond employee’s normal job duties) o Include [1] helping others without selfish intent, [2] being actively involved in organizational activities, [3] avoiding unnecessary conflicts, [4] performing tasks beyond normal role requirements and [5] gracefully tolerating impositions - Counterproductive Work Behaviors (CWBs) (Voluntary...
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