Syed Muhammad Kashif (9888)
Muhammad Amin Khushk (9685)
Muhammad Ovais (7844)
Farhan Yakoob (10399)
AN PAPER SUBMITTED TO
Dr. SIRAJ JAMAL SIDDIQUI in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the course MGT-312 ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOR
SUNDAY 18th October, 2009
TABLE OF INDEX
1 – PERSONALITY5
2 – HOW PERSONALITIES DIFFER:7
3 – VALUES AND ATTITUDES10
4 – INDIVIDUAL DIFFERENCES AND DIVERSITY12
5 – CONCLUSIONS14
APPENDIX – A115
APPENDIX – A219
The report is focused to describe texture of human personality and its different contributing traits. It defines how these traits intermingled in a personality and develops humans sharing many things together as different entities.
As shared by OB studies, report gives that human personality is developed by Nature (Heredity) and Nurture (Situational and Environmental Impacts) and both deciding factor contribute almost equally in its composure. It describes the related concepts given in developmental approaches of Chris Argyris, Daniel Levinson and Gail Sheehy to define how personality develops across time and relates it with self and Self-efficacy concepts.
The report also depicts the differences in personality on the basis of Big-Five personality trait model and on the basis of another study that defines it in Social traits (problem solving approach), Personal Conception traits and Emotional Adjustment traits.
For understanding social traits, Carl Jung defined the problem solving approach that is made up of gathering and evaluating information and he identified that by adopting the approach, personalities can group into four distinct groups i.e. sensation – feeling, sensation – thinking, Intuition – Feeling & Intuition – Thinking. In recent times, formal MBTI (Myers-Briggs Type Indicator) ratings are available to minutely rate personalities on the model.
Personal conception traits are further divided into locus of control (how much one takes his/her control within oneself), Authoritarianism/Dogmatism (tendency to adhere rigidly to authority), Machiavellianism and Self-monitoring.
Emotional Adjustment traits measure how much an individual experiences emotional distress or displays unacceptable acts and sets two orientation models. Type-A orientation is characterized by impatience, desire for achievement and perfectionism. Type-B is symbolized as more easygoing and less competitive in relation to daily events.
It also gives the relation of Antecedents (beliefs and values), their created attitudes and its impacted behavior and intended result. For studying values, different studies from Milton Rokeach describing Terminal (desired ends) and Instrumental (means to reach to desired ends) values, Allport’s six value categorization and Bruce Maglino’s findings of four classes of human values.
In later sections of the report, understanding of personalities is further aligned to meet workforce diversity challenge and government support to affirmative actions in workplace against discriminatory rules and concepts. That also concludes what is the importance of positive aptitude (potential ability) and ability and how both should be weighed in the selection criteria.
Report concludes by relating personality model described by OB scholars with a survey conducted with different professionals (around 30) having different study background, brought up in different cultures and working in different industry segments of Pakistan. This applied relationship reveals few good findings and aligned studies with their application in workplace.
1 – PERSONALITY
Personality encompasses the overall combination of characteristics that captures the unique nature of as that person reacts and interacts with others. Or we can say it combines with a set of physical and mental attributes that are...