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Market orientation perspectives include the decision-making perspective (Shapiro, 1988), market intelligence perspective (Kohli and Jaworski, 1990), culturally based behavioural perspective (Narver and Slater, 1990), strategic perspective (Ruekert, 1992) and customer orientation perspective (Deshpande et al., 1993). The two most prominent conceptulizations of market orientation are those given by Kohli and Jaworski (1990)and Narver and Slater (1990). While Kohli and Jaworski (1990) considers market orientation as the implementation of the marketing concept, Narver and Slater (1990) considers it as an organisational culture. Kohli and Jaworski (1990) defined market orientation as "the organization-wide generation of market intelligence, dissemination of the intelligence across departments and organization-wide responsiveness to it"  According to them, the marketing concept is a business philosophy, whereas the term market orientation refers to the actual implementation of the marketing concept. They added that "a market orientation appears to provide a unifying focus for the efforts and projects of individuals and departments within the organization." On the other hand, Narver and Slater (1990) consider market orientation as an organisational culture consisting of three behavioral components, namely, i) customer orientation, ii) competitor orientation and iii) interfunctional coordination. -------------------------------------------------
Market orientation measurement scales
In order to measure market orientation, the two most widely used scales are MARKOR  and MKTOR  The mktor scale is a 15-item, 7-point Likert-type scale, with all points speciﬁed. In this measure, market orientation is conceptualised as a one dimensional construct, with three components, namely: customer orientation, competitor orientation, and interfunctional coordination. The simple average of the scores of the three components is the market orientation score. On the other hand, the markor scale is a 20-item, 5-point Likert scale, with only the ends of the scale speciﬁed. Here market orientation is again composed of three components as well, namely: intelligence generation, intelligence dissemination, and responsiveness. The Organization's Focus
Have you ever wondered why the smartphone company RIM (the makers of the Blackberry smartphone) fell out of popularity and why Apple's iPhone success has grown? The answer is in the difference between a sales- and marketing-oriented company. The main differences between a sales-oriented company and a marketing-oriented company have to do with their overall view of the marketplace. Asales-oriented company is very internally focused and looks to sell products that the company is successful at making. A marketing-oriented company is externally focused on the consumer's wants and needs. Companies such as Southwest, Disney and Amazon all look to solve a customer need with an idea, product or service. A marketing-oriented firm looks to create customer value. Customer Value
Customer value is the relationship between benefits and the sacrifice needed to obtain those benefits. Customer value can be applied to a Rolex watch and a jar of peanut butter. Customer value does not imply that a product or service has to be of high quality; good customer value means that a consumer must be getting a product of a quality that they expect with a price that they are happy with paying. Elements Of Customer Value
Marketing-oriented companies can follow some basic rules in order to provide customer value. First of all, companies should offer products that perform to the customer's satisfaction. For example, when a customer purchases a new laptop the product should meet their expectations. Next, a company must earn trust from their customers. Trust is usually obtained when the product or service performs as...