Unit 3: Organisations and Behaviour:
Organisational Behaviour (in short called as OB) is concerned with the study of the behaviour and interaction of people in restricted or organised settings. It involves understanding people and predicting their behaviour, and knowledge of the means by which their behaviour is influenced and shaped. Organisations are bodies or entities created for a stated purpose They may consist of one or more people. In the case of a sole trader or single operator, he needs to build relationships with suppliers, contractors, customers, clients, and the community. For those that consist of more than one person, internal as well as external relationships have to be created and maintained. Organisations therefore consist of individuals, groups, and relationships. Objectives, structures, systems and processes are then created to give direction and order to activities and interactions. OB is thus of great concern to anyone who organises, creates, orders, directs, manages, or supervises the activities of others. It is also of concern to those who build relationships between individuals, groups of people, different parts of organisation between different organisation, for all these activities are founded on human interactions. OB is therefore concerned with:1. The purposes for which organisations are created 2. The behaviour of individuals, and an understanding of the pressures and influences that cause them to act and react in particular ways. 3. The qualities that individuals bring to particular situations. 4. The creation of groups i.e., collections of people brought together for given purposes. 5. The background and context within which activities take place. 6. The relationships and interactions with the wider environment with other organisations and groups. 7. The management and ordering of the whole and its parts into productive and effective work relationships. GOALS OF O.B. There are 4 primary goals of OB, which are as under:1. Describe 2. Understand 3. Predict, AND 4. Control.
1.1 Compare and contrast different organisational structures and culture 1.2 Explain how the relationship between an organisation’s structure and culture can impact on the performance of the business 1.3 Discuss the factors which influence individual behaviour at work
First of all, an organisational structure refers to how an organisation has Hierarchical subordinates of persons concerned to achieve the same goal. The culture of an organisation can be described as the value, attitudes and beliefs of people within an organisation. The structure and the culture of the organisation reflects the aims and strategies to be accomplished. Formal and Informal organisation
In order to have control of an organisation’s performance, an organisation would have some type of deliberate organisational structure. This is called a formal organisation; Structures are clearly organised by dividing departments, level of authority, responsibility and communication line.
On the other hand, there are informal organisations. An Informal organisation does not have a specific structure or a planned division of responsibility and this type of organisations can be seen within formal organisations. Geographic Structure
A structure with one head office who has the power to control all departments, and several regional or territorial departments where they run the production or service. For example, An airline company would have an head office in a country and departments spread all over the world. These departments whether in country A or country B, will have the same structure such as the finance, human resource and marketing and sales, therefore their operations would be the same, in the case of an airline firm, to sell flight tickets.
• Each department has the power to makes decisions in order to meet the local demand. For example, a Fast food company may produce a spicy burger...
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