It is of utmost importance to study the organizational culture of a firm so as to have knowledge about the functioning and management of an organization in order to bring about more planning and development towards attaining the goals of the organization. Organizational culture mainly helps in the study of the behaviours and attitudes of the employees in an organization so as to maintain or develop, if necessary, their coordination and thus direct them to the achievement of targets set by the organization. This assignment mainly aims at explaining in detail organizational culture and its effects on the role of the manager.
Every organization is the part of a society and every employee is a part of the society that he or she comes from. Thus different people joining the organization bring their culture with them into the organization (Fincham and Rhodes, 1999). So it is the job of a manager to take care that there is no culture clash and there is a uniform organizational culture throughout the organization. Since the manager is the most important person in an organization, the culture of an organization mainly affects the manager before it may affect any other employees in the organization. A manager decides on the organizational changes, and organizational culture has an influence on the organizational change (Lorenzo, 1998; Ahmed, 1998; Pool, 2000; Silvester and Anderson, 1999).
Organizational Culture could be defined as the ideas, principles, ethics, hypothesises, expectations, attitudes, beliefs, standards and norms within an organization (Kilmann et al., 1985)
It consists of:
• The manner in which people interact during organizational services and procedures, and the language generally used. • The customs shared by employees all through the organization. • The leading values of an organisation.
• The idea that directs the organization's principle towards employees and clients. • The rules and regulations to get along in the organization, especially for a new comer so that he is accepted by everyone. • The environment in an organization, the design in which employees interact with each other as well as the outsiders.
Thus organizational culture includes both internal as well as external factors. The manager has to see to it that the employees are interacting well within the organization, and ensure that the interactions and communications are healthy and favourable to the organization. One important subject facing organizations is to decide the sort of organizational culture that favours organizational change. This is an important duty of the top managers, because they are the people who should make decisions on how to apply changes within an organization. Some say that the process should begin from the top while others say that it should begin from the bottom to the top level (Lupton, 1971). Any changes that are made in an organization should take into consideration the organizational culture of the firm. Managers should understand the kind of organizational culture that an organization has and then implement one or more steps to carry out the changes in that particular organization. For example, an organization which has a strong culture need not be as complex as an organization that has a weak culture.
According to Goffee and Jones (1998), there are four types of organizational culture based on sociability and solidarity. Sociability is the personal relationships betweens the employees, how friendly they are. Solidarity is the extent of interdependence of employees to achieve their tasks, their requirement to work jointly for the completion of a job.
Thus, the four main types of organizational culture are:
• Networked Culture: Here the tasks are not interdependent. It is done individually but friendly. The employees are personally close to each other even if their tasks are done individually. • Communal Culture: Here the...
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