DEFINITION OF INTEGRAL CONCEPT
Mullins, L.J (1999) states an organization as “Social constructs created by groups of people in society to achieve specific purposes by means of planned and coordinated activities, and these activities involve using human resources to act in association with other inanimate resources in order to achieve objectives or goals”
Mbangweta (2007), states organizations are systems of interdependent human beings. From some points of view the members of an organization may be considered as a resource, but are a special kind of resource in that they are directly involved in all the functioning processes of the organization, and they can effect its aims not merely the methods used to accomplish them.
Organisational characteristics refer to the general conditions that exist within an organisation. Various organisational characteristics influence organisational effectiveness
According to Robbins (2005) an organisational structure defines how are job tasks formally divided, grouped and coordinated.
Organisation structure may be defined as the established pattern of relationships among the components of the organisation. Organisation structure in this sense refers to the network of relationships among individuals and positions in an organisation. Miles and snow have defined organisation structure as the formal system of task and reporting relationships that controls, coordinates and motivates employees so that they cooperate and work together to achieve an organisation’s goals. In fact organisation structure describes the organisation framework. Just as human beings have skeletons that define their parameters, organizations have structures that define-theirs. It is like the architectural plan of a building. Just as the architect considers various factors like cost, space, special features needed etc. while designing a good structure, the managers too must look into factors like benefits of specialisation, communication problems, problems in creating authority levels etc., before designing the organisation structure.
Miles (1978) There are two types of organizations, formal and informal. Informal organizations do not have a specified structure. Formal organizations are build based upon the objective set for it. Organizational structure in such organization is hierarchical in nature, with people at each level having their own objectives, which contributes towards fulfillment of over all organizational objectives. In such organisastion people at lower levels report to higher level managers. The tier system has the principle of unity of command inbuilt in it. The organization structure may depend upon the size, number of products/services produced, skill and experience of the employees, managerial staff and geographical location of the organization. An organization may have several levels and pyramid like organizational structure or flat structure. The efficiency of the organization will depend upon the free flow of the information, efficient communication system prevailing in the organization, well-defined authority and responsibility supported by detailed policies, rules and regulations. The organization must have well laid out systems, which are understood by workers, supervisors and managers. The leader must keep open mind while dealing with subordinates and exercise full control over various systems, levels and ensure planned productivity and achieve high level of job satisfaction.
Organisation structure influence the division of the tasks, grouping of activities,...