Firstly, classical approach emphasis on the planning of the work, the technical requirements of the organisation, principles of management, and the assumption of rational and logical behaviour. There are two key elements in this approach which are scientific management and bureaucracy. For the scientific management, F.W. Taylor, father of scientific management, have set some principles for management to follow. He thought that management should carry out the work to workers in the prescribed way based on the principles. (Mullins and Christy, 2011)
‘A form of structure to be found in many large-scale organisations is bureaucracy. Bureaucracy is abased on specialisation of tasks, hierarchy of authority and decision-making, systems of rules and regulations and an impersonal orientation from officials.’’ (Mullins and Christy, 2011) Therefore, people who work in a company of bureaucracy structure usually find that their opinion cannot be listened by the management. Max Weber, who is a German sociologist, also tried to identify about the characteristics of bureaucracy. One of his concepts about structure of organisation are ‘rational-legal’. He treated it as the dominant institution of modern society. He thought it is rational as the organisation is like a well-designed machine with a certain function to perform, and every part of the machine contributes to the attainment of maximum performance of that function under the structure of bureaucracy. (Pugh and Hickson, 1989) Also, hierarchy of authority is one of the crucial characteristics of bureaucracy, which means there are a clear level of authority between management and workers in the company. It may encourage workers to strive for a higher position gradually as they are given a clear career prospect from the company.
However, such approach still exists some problems obviously. Workers will be developed as dependent and a lack of flexibility if they just follow the instruction of management. In the long term, they may not know how to solve an incident without a complete set of rules or procedures. In the psychological perspective, it will become a barrier to workers in psychological growth. It is because bureaucracy will make them have feelings of failure, frustration and conflict. They cannot work independently and personally.
In the sociological perspective, it leads to ‘de-skilling’ which cheapens labour and inhabits upward mobility. If people are socially estranged from their human nature ‘alienation’ will result in several consequences such as division of labour will lead to tedious, uncreative.
The second approach is Human Relations approach. This approach stated that people are not interested only in financial gains, but also recognition and appreciation from their superior and colleagues. There are two main features of this approach. One is The Hawthorne experiments, which is one of the most influential theories in the subject of organisational behaviours and is analysed by Elton Mayo. The term ‘’Hawthorne Effect’’ has come to mean any short term increase in productivity. For instance, people will work more efficient when they are being watched.
Another main feature of this approach is Neo-Human Relations. This concept includes three theories. The first theory is Maslow’s Need Hierarchy Theory, which comprised of five human beings needs. When lower-order need is satisfied, a higher-order need will appear that needs to be satisfied.
The second theory is Herzberg’s two-factor theory. One of the factors is...