Organisational Behavior: Job Satisfaction & Organizational Politics

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Question 1:
Job satisfaction is a desirable outcome for both the individual and organisation. Elucidate. Also explain the factors that lead to Job satisfaction. Answer 1:
Managers have forever been faced with the perplexing question that how does satisfaction of an individual employee impact the productivity at the individual level and finally on the organisation as a whole. The goal of every manager is to ensure the optimum utilization of organisational resources to achieve the desired goal of economic profitability; however the task at hand remains quite complex when the human factor is concerned. In simple terms, job satisfaction pertains to an employee’s general attitude towards his or her job. Attitude can be said to be the final psychological stance an individual takes after he/she has evaluated his/her perceptions or paradigms regarding the job, organisation, work-conditions, co-workers etc. An individual’s values also play a key role in the background to shape up the final outcome of the job satisfaction dynamics. An employee’s job satisfaction is said to have influence on the outcome variables such as productivity, turnover, absenteeism and other factors of organisational importance. A meta-analytical study has shown that job satisfaction and individual productivity has a significant positive correlation of 0.30 , while in another study it has been seen that individual’s attitude and productivity has a positive correlation of 0.17 . The studies point to the fact that most likely a satisfied employee will be productive but there are other factors which determine the outcome. The flipside of the ‘high satisfaction-high productivity equation’ is that the higher productivity could lead to burn-out. Motivation in form of rewards play a significant role in pushing the employee towards a high productivity trajectory, however an unchecked boost could lead to exhaustion resulting in additional cost for the organisation. Some studies have even shown that high job satisfaction and high productivity could lead to greater complacency among some group of workers . Another outcome variable that is of important to job satisfaction is employee absenteeism. A numerous empirical studies have been conducted on this topic and results have been inconsistent. Some studies show that there is a negative correlation between job satisfaction and absenteeism , while others indicate that there is zero correlation between the two variables. In a study by Nicholson et al. it has been shown that job satisfaction and absenteeism have zero correlation but their conclusion supported that there may be some causal relationships under special circumstances . Hence it can be stated that a high job satisfaction may not lead lower absenteeism in all cases, however definitely a low job satisfaction can lead to higher rates of absenteeism. Various studies have shown that dissatisfied employees are more likely to leave their jobs than the ones who have a higher job satisfaction . Employee turnover is another factor which seems to have a moderate negative correlation with job satisfaction in the range of -0.25 . Therefore the fact that higher job satisfaction will definitely lead to a lower turnover rate cannot be carved in stone. A study shows that there can be around 26 variables that are related to employee turnover, among which gender and nationality influences are a few. It would more precise to say that job satisfaction has a strong negative correlation with turnover intention rather than just turnover rate . Hence, an employee who finds that his job is more in line with his or her self-identify and involving oneself in such a job is overall satisfying the intention to leave would be reduced drastically. To sum it up it is well within scope to state that there are significant amount of grey areas pertaining to the topic of job satisfaction and its impact on the organisation on the whole. However, one can surely state that if not entirely but to...
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