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| It has been suggested that Organizational hierarchy be merged into this article or section. (Discuss)| An organizational structure consists of activities such as task allocation, coordination and supervision, which are directed towards the achievement of organizational aims. It can also be considered as the viewing glass or perspective through which individuals see their organization and its environment. Many organizations have hierarchical structures, but not all. Organizations are a variant of clustered entities. An organization can be structured in many different ways, depending on their objectives. The structure of an organization will determine the modes in which it operates and performs. Organizational structure allows the expressed allocation of responsibilities for different functions and processes to different entities such as the branch, department, workgroup and individual. Organizational structure affects organizational action in two big ways. First, it provides the foundation on which standard operating procedures and routines rest. Second, it determines which individuals get to participate in which decision-making processes, and thus to what extent their views shape the organization’s actions. Contents[hide] * 1 Operational organizations and informal organizations * 2 History * 2.1 Organizational structure types * 2.1.1 Pre-bureaucratic structures * 2.1.2 Bureaucratic structures * 2.1.3 Post-bureaucratic * 2.1.4 Functional structure * 2.1.5 Divisional structure * 2.1.6 Matrix structure * 2.2 Organizational circle: moving back to flat * 2.3 Team * 2.4 Network * 2.4.1 Virtual * 2.5 Hierarchy-Community Phenotype Model of Organizational Structure * 3 See also * 4 References |  Operational organizations and informal organizations
See also: Informal organization and Formal organization
The set organizational structure may not coincide with facts, evolving in operational action. Such divergence decreases performance, when growing. E.g. a wrong organizational structure may hamper cooperation and thus hinder the completion of orders in due time and within limits of resources and budgets. Organizational structures shall be adaptive to process requirements, aiming to optimize the ratio of effort and input to output.  History
See also: Hierarchical organization and Flat organization
Organizational structures developed from the ancient times of hunters and collectors in tribal organizations through highly royal and clerical power structures to industrial structures and today's post-industrial structures. As pointed out by Mohr (1982, pp. 102–103), the early theorists of organizational structure, Taylor, Fayol, and Weber "saw the importance of structure for effectiveness and efficiency and assumed without the slightest question that whatever structure was needed, people could fashion accordingly. Organizational structure was considered a matter of choice... When in the 1930s, the rebellion began that came to be known as human relations theory, there was still not a denial of the idea of structure as an artifact, but rather an advocacy of the creation of a different sort of structure, one in which the needs, knowledge, and opinions of employees might be given greater recognition." However, a different view arose in the 1960s, suggesting that the organizational structure is "an externally caused phenomenon, an outcome rather than an artifact." In the 21st century, organizational theorists such as Lim, Griffiths, and Sambrook (2010) are once again proposing that organizational structure development is very much dependent on the expression of the strategies and behavior of the management and the workers as constrained by the power distribution between them, and...